FLORA

OF

BRITISH INDIA.

Dates of Publication of the Several Parts of this Volume.

Part XIIL pp. 1-240, was published Aug. 1886,

» XIV. pp. 241-462 Dee. 1887,

Hi

» XV. pp. 463-686 Dec. 1888.

3}

» XVI. pp. 687 to end April 1890,

3

| /4 45 " /$ f

L]

FLORA OF BRITISH INDIA.

BY

SIR J. D. HOOKER, C.B., K.C.S.I.

M.D., F.R.S., D.C.L. OXON., LL.D. CANTAB,

ORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE „INSTITUTE OF FRANCE, AND HON. MEMBER OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL.

ASSISTED BY VARIOUS BOTANISTS.

VOL. V.

CHENOPODIACEZE TO ORCHIDEZ.

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR

INDIA IN COUNCIL.

LONDON: L REEVE & CO., 5, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN.

1890.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, LIMITED, ST, JOHN'S HOUSE, CLERKENWELL ROAD, E.C.

FLORA OF BRITISH INDIA.

Order CXVII. CHENOPODIACEJIE.

Herbs or shrubs. Z i . Leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate. Flowers 1-2- i à , . ers pian small, usually regular, often ‘dimorphic ; brasts 1-8, or 0. Calyr usual 9 -9 free or connate sepals, imbricate in bud. Petals 0. Stamens Ovary 2 opposite the sepals, perigynous or hypogynous; anthers 2-celled. basal o; re , globos or depressed, I-celled; stigma 2-4; ovule solitary, - Often RUN eral ,campylotropous. Fruit usually a utricle enclosed in the ceous, c arged fleshy calyx. Seeds horizontal or vertical, testa crusta- curved oniaceous or membranous; albumen floury fleshy or 0; embryo dizit: ular or spiral.—Genera 80; species about 520, natives of all Three genera of th i À : the Tribe Camphorosmeæ are so characteristic of Affghan or frontier. th vegetation, that they may be expected to occur within the “Indian tubercle} Perianth Camphorosma, wits an unequally 3-5-toothed compressed not Kirit P ; Panderia, with an equally 5-lobed tubercled j ; trilovia with an equally 5-toothed smooth perianth. picnic an

Suborder I. C tni th . . CHENOPODIEÆ. Stem not twining. Bracteoles free from 9 perianth. Anthers erect or incurved in bud. g

Series 1. Cycro ;

res 1. LOBEX. E -like;

copious (0 in Salicornia) mbryo annular or horseshoe-like; albumen T .

si mila b Euchenopodieæ. Stem not jointed. Flowers clustered, all

. » Leaves flat. Stamens perigynous. Embryo usually annular.

Utricle circumciss . 1. ACROGLOCHIN.

tricle i n I Utricis indehiscent. Perianth 5-partite . Ron 2. CHENOPODIUM, ehiscent. Perianth 5-lobed, base thickered . . 3. BETA.

. .

btaa Atripliceæ. Stem not jointed. Flowers dimorphic; d

in 2 free « e, 3-5-lobed or parted ; 9 usually without perianth and enclosed

crustace r connate bracts, except Spinacia. Stamens perigynous. Testa ous or coriaceous; embryo annular.

FI.

Fi. $ braacteolate. Perianth 3-4-toothed . 4. SPINACIA.

Fi cteoles flat, edges united or not 5. ATRIPLEX 6. EUEROTIA.

* 8 -bracteoles conduplicate, edges united . Stem not jointed. Flowers all similar tricle naked or enclosed in adhering to the copious

Tnbe3, Ca wT mphorosmeee. or À he enh in ? 0. Stamens hypogynous. umen anged perianth. Testa membranous, ; embryo horseshoe-formed.

‘Sepals s - Utricle crested above . . . + + e * 7. AXYRIS. ; QM of 90. Utricle crested above . . . 8. MicEOGYNECIUM, : B

VOL.

2 CXVII. CHENOPODIACEX, (J. D. Hooker.)

Tribe 4. Corispermese. Siem not jointed. Flowers 2-sexual. Fruit exserted from the perianth. Seed erect, compressed; testa membranous, adhering to the copious albumen ; embryo annular.

Fruit unarmed, hidden by the large bracts. . . . . . 9. CORISPERMUM.

Tribe 5. Chenoleege. Stem not jointed. Flowers all similar. Utricle included in the usually enlarged perianth. Stamens hypogynous. Seed usually horizontal; testa membranous or coriaceous, adhering to the scanty albumen; embryo annular.

Fruiting perianth with simple or spinescent lobes . . . 10. CHENOLEA. Fruiting perianth with transverse wings . . . . . . IlL Kocnta.

Tribe 6. Salicornies. Stem fleshy, usually jointed. Flowers 2- sexual, immersed in cavities of the joints or between the scales of a fleshy cone. Testa crustaceous, fleshy or membranous.

Seed with fleshy albumen ; embryo semi-annular ,

e . . 12. ARTHROCNEMUM. Seed exalbuminous; embryo conduplicate .

e. 5. . 18. SALICORNIA. Series 2. SPIROLOBE®. Embryo spiral; albumen scanty or O.

Tribe 7. Susedese. Utricle enclosed in the simply enlarged perianth. Stem not jointed.

Perianth 5-lobed. Leaves linear fleshy. . . . . . . 14. Sumpa.

Tribe 8. Salsolese. Uricle enclosed in the transversely winged perianth. Stem jointed or not.

* Seed horizontal, Sepals dorsally winged.

Stem jointed. . . . Stem not jointed .

L] .

B . 15. HALOXYLON. 257.055 57550 « .-. 106. SALSOLA.

** Seed vertical. Sepals dorsally winged or not.

Seed dorsally compressed. . Stem jointed TP Seed laterally compressed. Sepals not winged. Anthers appendaged . .

17. ANABASIS.

eos oe e n n n s. n n s 5. . 18. HALOCRARIS. Seed laterally compressed. Sepals winged. Antherssimple 19. HALOGETON.

Suborder II. BAsELLE®. Stem twining. Bracteoles 2, broad, adnate to the face of the perianth. Filaments straight or recurved in bud.

Filaments straight in bud. Embryo spiral 20. BASELLA.

1. ACROGLOCHIN, Schrad.

An erect, strict, glabrous annual. eaves alternate. Flowers minute, sessile, clustered in the axils of short axillary cymes, subtended by needle- like flowerless branches; bracts and bracteoles 0. Sepals 5, subacute, green. Stamens 1-3, filaments dilated below. Ovary depressed; style short, stigmas 2 subulate; ovule erect. Ufricle disciform, depressed, cir-

cumsciss, Seed horizontal, testa black shining, albumen floury ; embryo annular.

, A. chenopodioides, Schrad. Cat. Hort. Gött. 1824. A. Schrade- rianus, Schultes Herb. A. persicarioides, Mog. in DC. Prodr. xiii. 2. 254.

Acroglochin.] cxvit cHENoPoDIacEa. (J. D. Hooker.) 3

Amarantus persicarioides, Poir. Dict. Suppl. i. 311. A. cauliflorus, Link Enum. Hort. Berol. ii. 889. A. diandrus, Spreng. Neue Entd. iii. 20. A. persicarioides and A. acroglochin, Spreng. Syst. i. 927. Lecanocarpus cauli- orus Nees Pl. Hort. Bonn. 4, t. 2. L. nepalensis, Fisch. mss. Blitanthus nepalensis, Reichb. Cat. Hort. Dresd. 1894.

WESTERN HIMALAYA; from Kashmir, alt. 8-5000 ft., to Kumaon and ? Nepal. KHASIA Mrs., alt. 5-6000 ft., J. D. H. & T. T.—DisTBIB. Yunan.

Stem 1-2 ft. ; branches 0 or short, erecto-patent, strict. Leaves 1-24 in., obtuse 9r acute, lobulate and erose; petiole 3-1 in. Cymes shorter than the leaves, } in. long and broad, branches rigid spreading. Flowers about j; in. diam., green.

2. CHENOPODIUM, Linz.

Erect or prostrate herbs. Stem angled. Leaves alternate, entire lobed or toothed. Flowers minute, 2-sexual, in axillary clusters or cymes. Sepals 3-5. Stamens 1-5. Disk 0. Ovary free, depressed or compressed; styles 2-3. Utricle membranous, included in the perianth. Seed horizontal or vertical, testa crustaceous, albumen floury; embryo annular.—Species about 50, all climates.

* Scentless or fetid herbs, Sepals 5, herbaceous (not succulent in fruit). mbryo perfectly annular.

l. C. album, Linn. Sp. Pi. 219; erect or ascending, mealy or green, leaves rhombic deltoid or lanceolate acute or obtuse, entire toothed or ‘regularly lobulate, upper narrower more entire, sepals keeled covering the utricle, seed smooth keeled. Mog. in DC. Prodr. xii. 2. 70; Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 901; Wall. Cat. 6952 (excl. most of C. (= Amarantus viridis). C. giganteum, Don Prodr. 74; Mog.l.c. C. nepalense, Hort. Monsp.

- album, Linn. C. viride, Linn., and C. laciniatum, Linn.; Roxb. FT. Tnd. ii. 58, 59. Q. purpurascens, Ham., in Wall, Cat. 6955. ? C. vulpinum, Vall. Cat, 6954 A.

TROPICAL and TEMPERATE HIMALAYA; from Kashmir to Sikkim, ascending to 12,000 ft. (wild and cultivated), and in WrsTERN Tree to 14,000 ft. Plains of BENGAL, the GANGETIC VALLEY and the PANJAB, KHaslA Mrs. cult. DECCAN PENINSULA. DISTRIB. Ubiquitous. 1

Stem 1-10 ft., rarely slender or decumbent, angled, often striped green, red or Purple. Leaves extremely variable, in the cult. forms 4-6 in. long, with the petiole cuj] times as long orlonger. Clusters in compact or lax panicled spikes, which in ise forms become thyrsoid. Seeds rarely vertical.—The cultivated forms vary from

een to red,

2. c. opulifolium, Schrad. in DC. Fl. Franc. v. 372; erect or ascending, mealy, leaves broadly rhombic obtuse or acute sinuate-lobed ber similar, cymes axillary lax-fld. usually shorter than the leaves, epa? met partially covering the utricle, seed punctulate margin rounded.

°9. in DC. Prodr. xiii. 2. 67 ; Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 901.

CENTRAL and WzsrERN HIMALAYA; Nepal, Wallich; Garwhal ?, Edgeworth ; Kashmir and Lahore, alt. 6-8000 ft, Clarke. WESTERN TIBET, alt. 10-14,000 ft.,

"t.50.—DisTRIB. Europe, N. and W. Asia.

ery near C. album, and not easily distinguished in the small acute-leaved om i et by the seed. In the ordinary state with broad openly sinuate obtuse leaves i 18 distinct enough, j

3. C. hybridum Linn. Sp. Pl. 219; erect, nearly glabrous, leaves . large broadly triangular orale long acuminate with 2-4 broad acute lobes

B 2

4 CXVII. CHENOPODIACEE, (J. D. Hooker.) (Chenopodium.

on each side, clusters in lax axillary and terminal almost leafless corymbose panicles, sepals obtusely keeled spreading in fruit, seed horizontal large opaque pitted hardly keeled. Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 902; Mog. in DC. Prodr. xiii. 2. 68; Fl. Dan. t. 2049.

WESTERN TIBET; Ladak, alt. 12,000 ft, Thomson. PESHAWUR; Stewart.— DisTRIB. Europe, N. Africa, N. Asia, N. America (introduced). Stout or slender, with spreading branches, 1-3 ft. high, odourheavy. Leaves

3-5 iu., almost shining, broadly. ovate, pale green, thin, 3-5-nerved from near the usually cordate base, Clusters large or small.

4. C. murale, Linn. Sp. Pl. 219; nearly glabrous, leaves bright- green rhombic or deltoid-ovate acute sides lobed and sharply toothed base cuneate, clusters in lax or dense axillary divaricate cymes, sepals obtusely keeled incurved in fruit, seed horizontal dotted acutely keeled opaque. Boiss. Fi. Orient. iv. 902; Mog. in DC. Prodr. xii. 2. 69; FL. Dan. t. 2048. C. Gandhium, Ham. (& Chamrium, Ham.), Wall. Cat. 6953. C. Hookerianum, Mog. in DC. Prodr. xii. 2. 68.

Uerer Gangetic VALLEY and the PANJAB; Royle, &c. Kumaon and NEPAL; Hamilton, &c. Deccan PENINSULA; at Bangalore, Coimbatore and elsewhere. CEYLON ; at Trincomalee, G@lenie.— DISTRIB. Ubiquitous.

Rather fetid. Stem 6-14 in., stout or slender, erect or ascending; branches

decumbent. Leaves $-3 in. broad, rather shining; petiole long or short. Spikes sometimes very slender.

5. C. glaucum, Linn. Sp. Pl. 220; branches decumbent or prostrate, leaves oblong or ovate-oblong sinuate-lobed or -toothed very mealy beneath, clusters in short dense axillary spikes, sepals keeled nearly

covering the utricle. Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 333; Mog. in DC. Prodr. xiii. 2. 72.

WESTERN TIBET; Ladak, alt. 12-14,000 ft., T'homson.— DisTRIP. Europe, N. and W. Asia, N. America, S. Chili, Australasia.

Much and widely branched, often succulent; stem 6-18 in. shining. Leaves &-lin., tip obtuse or rounded, base cuneate. Spikes 1-lin., simple or compound;

lateral flowers usually 2-4-merous, with a vertical very small seed; terminal 5-merous, with a larger often horizontal seed.

** Strongly aromatic glandular herbs. Embryo incompletely annular. 6. C. Botrys, Linn. Sp. PI. 219; erect, glandular-pubescent, branches and cymes spreading and recurved, lower leaves petioled ovate or oblong deeply sinuate or lobulate upper oblanceolate more entire, cymes short axillary and in long terminal racemes, sepals glandular-pubescent enclosing the utricle, seed horizontal subglobose smooth margin obtuse. Moq. in DC. Prodr. xi. 2. 75; Boiss. FL. Orient. iv. 903; Sibth. Fl. Gree. t. 253. C. ilicifolium, Griff. Notul. iv. 337, and Ic. Pl. Asiat. t. 521. C. nepalense,

Hort. Monsp. Ambrosia Botrys, Mog. Chenop. Enum. 37; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. Suppl. 73.

TEMPERATE HIMALAYA ; from Kashmir to Sikkim, alt. 4-10,000 ft. PESHAWUR ; Stewart. WESTERN TIBET, alt. 11-14,000 ft., a weed in fields, —DISTRIB. Europe, N. and W., Asia, N. Africa, introduced into America,

Very aromatic. Stem grooved and ribbed, 6-18 in. high, stout or slender. 1-3 in. usually oak-like, very obtuse; petiole variable. flowers solitary or clustered, minute.

Leaves Cymes short, branched,

7. C. ambrosioides, Linn. Sp. Pl. 219; erect, puberulous and glan- dular, branches strict, leaves shortly petioled oblong or lanceolate obtuse

*

Chenopodium.] CXVII. CHENOPODIACES. (J. D. Hooker.) 5

sinuate-toothed upper entire, clusters in slender axillary and terminal simple or panicled spikes, sepals enclosing the utricle, seed horizontal smooth shining margin obtuse. Wall. Cat. t. 6956; Mog. in DC. Prodr. xiii. 2. 72; Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 904; Wight Ie. t. 1786; Dalz. d' Gibs. Bomb. Fl. Suppl. 73. C. vulpinum, Wall. Cat. 6954 B.

BENGAL, SILHET and the Deccan; Wallich, Heyne, &c.—DisTRIB. Widely spread in the Old World, introduced into America. .

Usually a tall rank aromatic much-branched plant, easily distinguished by the long slender spikes of smallclusters. Wight remarks that the flowers are polygamous at Coimbatore,

P Scentless herbs. Sepals 1-3, succulent, baccate in fruit. Embryo imperfectly annular.

. 8. C. Blitum, Hook. f. in Gen. Plant. 52; glabrous, erect or ascend- ing, leaves petioled triangular hastate or deltoid and cordate acuminate deeply acutely unequally toothed, clusters sessile axillary and in termina ealy spikes, perianth baccate not enclosing the utricle, seed vertica smooth margin obtuse. Blitum virgatum, Linn. Sp. Pl. 4; Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 905; Moq. in DC. Prodr. xii. 2. 83; Lamk. Ill. t.5; Bot. Mag. t. 276.

N.W. Ixpri; Kashmir, alt. 8500 ft. WESTERN TIBET, alt. 12-14,000 ft., Thomson, &c,— DISTRIB. Europe, N. and W. Asia, N. Africa. . á

Stem 1-3 ft., rather stout, white. Leaves 1-3 in., bright green ; petiole slen er; Shorter or longer than the blade. Clusters i-j in. diam. Stamen 1. See opaque.

3. BETA, Linn.

Succulent herbs. Leaves alternate, subentire. Flowers 2-sexual, soli- TY orin axillary spiked or cymose clusters. Perianth urceolate, 5-lobe i cohering in fruit by their enlarged hardened bases. Stamens 5. | fleshy, annular. Ovary depressed, sunk in the disk; style short, stigmas .Stbulate. Utricle adnate to the disk and base of perianth. - See ‚orizontal, testa thin, albumen floury; embryo annular.—Species 2 (or 8), N. Asiatic and European.

B. vulgaris, Linn. Sp. Pl. 922; annual or perennial, glabrous, root- leaves ovate or oblong obtuse base cuneate or cordate cauline rhombic ovate oblong obovate or lanceolate, spikes slender panicled, flowers sessile so itary or <-3-nate, bracts narrow acute, sepals oblong obtuse thickened at the ase n fruit. Mog. in DC. Prodr. xiii. 2.55; Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 898; Lam z Encycl. & 182; Grah. Cat. Bomb. PL 171; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. Suppl. ^9. B. benghalensis, Road, Fl. Ind.ii.59; Wall. Cat.6948. B. orientalis, Roth Nov, Sp. 181.

Cultivated in various parts of ĪNDIA. a tem 1-3 ft., erect, furrowed. Lower leaves 1-10 in., often trowel-shaped; base yecorrent on the petiole, margin waved, upper short incurved. Spikes . Slender ; clusters remote. Sepals with membranous margins.— Beet,

4. SPINACIA, Linn.

;,,AUnnalherbs, Leaves attenuate. Flowers dicecious, ebracteate, males 12 terminal leafless spikes; females in axillary clusters. Mare fl. Sepals

79, herbaceous, simple. Stamens 4-5, filaments capillary. Fem. fl.

6 CXVII. CHENOPODIACEX. (J. D. Hooker.) [Spinacia.

Perianth subglobose, 2-4-toothed ; fruiting enclosing the utricle, coriaceous, unarmed or with 2-3 dorsal spines. Stigmas long, filiform, connate below. Utricle hard, compressed, adnate to the perianth. Seed vertical, testa thin, albumen floury; embryo annular.—Species 4, Oriental, 2 of them extensively cultivated.

S. oleracea, Linn. Sp, Pl. 1027; erect, leaves deltoid ovate acuminate acutely broadly pinnatifidly lobed, fruiting perianths free 2-epinous. Mog. in DC. Prodr. xii. 2. 118; Lamk. Encycl. t. 814; Grah. Cat. Bomb. Pl. 171; Dalz. & Gibs. Suppl. 23. S. tetrandra, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 771; Wight Ie. t. 818; Wall. Cat. 6949.

Cultivated throughout Ixp1A.— Native country unknown.

The S. tetrandra of Roxburgh is not the plant of Stevens, as M. de Candolle assumes it to be (“Origine des Plantes Cultivée," 79), but the common S. oleracea, which, as Boissier points out, is distinguished from S. tetrandra by the free fruiting perianths. Nevertheless De Candolle's suggestion that the cultivated S. oleracea is a derivative from the S. tetrandra, Stev., which is indigenous in the Caucasus, is a very reasonable one. Spinach.

5. ATRIPLEX, Linn.

Herbs or shrubs, usually mealy. Leaves rarely opposite. Flowers monœ- or diccious. Marr fl. ebracteate. Sepals 3-5, oblong, obtuse. Stamens 3-5. Fem. fl. 2-bracteate; bracts flat, accrescent, dilated in fruit and forming a 2-valved covering to the utricle. Perianth 0. Utricle at the base of the greatly enlarged and hardened bracts; stigmas 2. Seed erect, or inverse and suspended from the funicle, rarely horizontal, testa various, albumen

floury; embryo annular.—Species about 100, all temperate, cool and tropical regions.

* Flowers polygamous. Seed of the female fi. vertical, of the bisexual horizontal. E

1. A. hortensis, Linn. Sp. Pl. 1053; annual, stout, erect, leaves not mealy triangular-cordate upper ovate-lanceolate, spikes axillary and in terminal panicles, fruiting bracts nearly free thin orbicular or elliptic reticu- late obtuse or mucronate. Mog.in DC. Prodr. xiii.2.91; Boiss, Fl. Orient. iv. 907; Grah. Cat. Bomb. Pl. 171; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. Suppl. 73. A. virgata, Roth Nov. Sp. 377; Mog. l.c.97. A. bengalensis, Lamk. Dict, i. 276. A. heterantha, Wight Ic. t. 1787.

Cultivated in many parts of BENGAL, the Deccan, N.W. Inpra and up to 12,000 ft. in the WESTERN HIMALAYA and TrsET.—DisTRIB. Cultivated in Europe and N. and W. Asia,

This, the Arroche, Orache or Mountain Spinach of the French, is of unknown origin, being found only under cultivation or in cultivated ground.—4A specimen of this from Heyne, in Rottler's Herbarium, bears the name A. virgata, thus identifying that obscure plant, which Roth described from very young individuals.

** Annuals, with monecious flowers. .

2. A. crassifolia, C. A. Mey. in Ledeb. FI. Alt. iv. 300; green and hoary, erect or ascending and diffuse, branches white, leaves petioled oblong or ovate-oblong or hastately ovate obtuse entire or sinuate-toothed upper entire often acute, male clusters in slender leafless interrupted spikes, fruiting bracts rhombic-ovate or orbicular herbaceous entire or toothed with a very thick white convex smooth disk and base. Mog. in DC. Prodr. xiii.

Atriplez.] CXVII. OHENOPODIACEZ. (J. D. Hooker.) 7

2. 93; Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 909; Ledeb. Ic. Fl. Alt. t.42. A. laciniata, Aitchison Cat. Panjab Pl. 125, and Herb. Ind. Or. H. f. & T.

N.W. INDIA and the PANJAB; from the Jumna westward. KUNAWUR and WESTERN TIBET, alt. 8-12,000 ft., Falconer, Thomson.—DISsTRIB. Affghanistan, Turkestan, Soongaria, Altai Mts. .

Branched from the root; branches firm, 1-2 ft. Leaves usually small, 1-14 in., pale; petiole slender. Fruiting-bracts very variable, from ovate with a cuneate base to orbicular, 4—4 in. long.—I fear that this is only a dry country form of A. laciniata, L., with white stems, small leaves, and hardened disk of the bracts, which Boissier describes as smooth or tubercled (they are quite smooth in the Indian plant) The name seems a singularly inappropriate one.

_ 3. A.rosea, Linn. ? Sp. Pl. Ed.2,1493 ; green, mealy, branches very many diffuse slender ascending, leaves small petioled rhombic-ovate with obtuse sides and tips entire or subsinuate, male clusters in short axillary spikes, fruiting bracts small broadly triangular-hastate or flabelliform crenate thin disk coarsely reticulate or rugose. Schkuhr Handb. t. 350; Fl. Dan.

1284; Boiss. FI. Orient. iv. 911. ? A. tartarica B virgata, Boiss l. c. 910.

WESTERN TIBET; banks of Salt Lakes, alt. 12—14,000 ft., in Sassar, Hanle, &c.,

mMSon.— DISTRIB. (of 4. rosea) Westward to the Atlantic. .

A very slender plant; branches 4-6 in., greenish-white. Leaves }-} in., base cuneate. Bracts about + in. broad or long, sometimes sinuate-lobed, subsessile or contracted into a hardened pedicel, —An obscure plant.

»* . . . * Perennials, with monecious flowers.

4. A. repens, Roth Nov. Sp. 377; shrubby, white, stem woody pros- trate rooting, leaves small petioled oblong elliptic or suborbicular obtuse, male clusters in short branched spikes, fruiting bracts united into a thick corky obovate or orbicular turgid pouch with thin free tips contracted at the base into a stout cylindric pedicel, disk smooth or rugose. Moq. in

C. Prodr. iit 2.99. A. Konigii Wall. Cat. 6951. A. eristata, Konig vss. A. Belangeri, Boiss. FI. Orient. iv. 913. Obione Belangeri, Mog. 7. c. 108. O. nummularia, Mog. Enum. Chenopod. 72. O. Keenigii, Mog. l. c. 109; Wight Ic. t. 1790.

Dzocax PENINSULA, Konig; Tuticoreen in Tinnevelly, Wight. taites.—DrsTRIB. ? Affghanistan, Persia. li Branches woody, 1-2 ft. long, straggling or tufted and short. Leaves i- "

ong, thick, tip rounded or retuse, base cuneate; petiole very short. Fruiting-bracts

very variable, 1-3 in. long or broad, sometimes compressed, smooth, at others almost

Blobose with thick processes on the surface, lips very short crenate. Radicle pointing

Upwards.—The Affghan plant has smaller bracts, but of the same corky character, an

with thick cylindric pedicels.

CEYLON,

9. A. Stocksii, Boiss. Diagn. Ser. iv. 73; shrubby, white, branches

Woody prostrate or suberect, leaves small petioled oblong elliptic or subor- lcular obtuse, male clusters axillary or in short leafy spikes, ruiting bracts

Cuneate at the base only orbicular or broadly ovate and suddenly i ^

Into a short pedicel disk small, lips broad quite entire thin retien A e., n

Oo fithii, var. Stocksii, Boiss. FI. Orient. iv. 916. A. repens, 4 Gibs 4. Pl. Panjab 125. Obione Stocksii, Wight Ic. t. 1789; Dalz. jp Gibs. omb. Fl, 919. ` :

4 ^m E; salt marshes at Kurrachee, Stocks, Vicary. GUZERAT; common, Dele.

i : . d fruiting- Ti and foliage very much like A, repens, but leaves dor iftihi, Phich oppents

ts very different.—Boissier has made this a variety of 4. G

8 CXVII. CHENOPODIACEX. (J. D. Hooker.) [Atriplex.

to me to differ in its much larger orbicular sinuate thin leaves, and rhombic fruiting- bracts, which are corky throughout, united to the middle, and perfectly smooth. This is Moquin’s type of Griffithii, so named by himself. Another plant of Griffith also numbered 1751 has very large orbicular fruiting-bracts nearly $ in. diam., with a woody veined disk, the thin margins united all round (like an Alyssum fruit). As for Moquin's description, it agrees with neither of these plants, and it is difficult to

account for this, and for his suggestion that A. Griffithii may be a var. of the Aus- tralian 4. Lindleyi.

6. BUROTIA, Adeus.

Herbs or undershrubs, woolly or tomentose. Leaves small, alternate, entire. Flowers minute, l.sexual. Mate fl. spicate, ebracteate. Sepals 4, obovate, obtuse. Stamens 4, filaments filiform. Fem. fl. axillary, 2- bracteate; bracts conduplicate, connate with free lips, at length closing over the utricle, becoming coriaceous, veined, villous, 2-beaked, and at length splitting into 4 valves. Perianth 0. Utricle ellipsoid, compreseet, mem- branous; stigmas 2, filiform. Seed sessile, free, obovoid, beaked below, testa membranous, albumen floury ; embryo horseshoe-shaped.

E. ceratoides, C. A. Meyer in Led. Fl. Alt. iv. 239; shrubby, hoary with stellate hairs, leaves linear-oblong or lanceolate obtuse floral narrower, fruiting bracts urceolate silkily villous with long reddish hairs. Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 917; Mog. in DC. Prodr. xii. 2. 120. Axyris ceratoides, Linn. Sp. Pl. Achyranthes papposa, Jacg. Jc. Rar. t. 189. A. Moorcroftiana, Brown in Wall. Cat. 6950; Mog. l. c. 117.

Western HIMALAYA; in the drier regions from Kunawur westward, and in WESTERN TIBET, alt. 8-14,000 ft. Moorcroft, &c.—DisTRIB. Central Europe from Spain eastward, Affghanistan, Central Asia, Siberia, Mongolia, N.W. America, à

A bush, 2-4 ft. high, stunted and dwarf at high and dry elevations ; branches strict, slender, leafy, glabrous or tomentose. Leaves }-1} in., rarely ovate or elliptic, margin often recurved; petiole very short ; upper sessile. Fruiting-bracts crowded

along the upper parts of the branches conspicuous for their long silky red-brown hairs å in. long.

7. AXYRIS, Linn.

Annual, stellately hairy or glabrate herbs. Leaves small, alternate, entire. Flowers minute, monoecious, ebracteate. Marere fi. in terminal clusters with 3-5 hyaline sepals, often irregularly placed, and 2-5 slender stamens. Fem. fl axillary, solitary or mixed with the males. Sepals 3-4, unequal, at length scarious. Utricle membranous, embraced by the sepals, obovoid, compressed or spherical, tip shortly winged crested or 2-auricled, stigmas capillary very long. Seed erect, obovoid, adhering to the utricle, testa membranous marked with concentric lines, albumen granular; embryo horseshoe-shaped.—Species 5 or 6, N. and Central Asia, N.W. America.

A. amaranthoides, Linn. Sp. Pi. 979; erect, branched from

the base, leaves ovate or oblong obtuse or acute. Mog. in DC. Prodr. xii.

2. 116; Lamk. Encycl. t. 753; Schkuhr Handb.985», A. hybrida, Linn. ; Mog. l. e.; Schkuhr L. c.

WESTERN HIMALAYA; in the drier regions from Lahul to Kumaon, alt.

8-13,000 ft., and in WESTERN TIBET, alt. 10-14,000 ft., Jacquemont, Strachey §

Winterbottom, Thomson, &c.—DisTRIB. Turkestan, Soongaria, the Altai, Siberia, . China.

Very variable in size, 4-10 in. high; stem stout or slender, Leaves }-1} in,

A«yris.] CXVII. CHENOPODIACES. (J. D. Hooker.) 9

pale-yellowish or reddish-brown when dry; nerves faint; petiole short, slender. 4. hybrida is, I think, only the longer branched state of 4. amaranthoides. ar. humifusa, Mog. l. c.; very small, procumbent.— Western Tibet, Thomson, Clarke. Topedunga (with Microgynecium), Strachey 5 Winterbottom.—1 suspect ‘that the A. prostrata does not differ from this. There isa fragment of an Axyris gathered in Lahul by the Rev. H. Jaeschke, and described as a garden weed, which has ovate obtuse leaves 1 in. long, on petioles of the same length.

8. MICROGYNESCIUM, Hook. f., Gen. Plant. iii. 56.

A small diffuse prostrate puberulous or glabrous annual. Leaves alter- nate, petioled, ovate, entire. Flowers monecious, very minute, clustered,

den amongst the leaves. Mare fl.ebracteate. Perianth hyaline, 5-lobed. Stamens 1-4, filaments very long. Fem. fl. 2-bracteate, solitary or crowded, bracts unchanged in fruit. Perianth 0. Utricle hyaline, obliquely ovoid, turgid, compressed, covered with scattered processes, and 1-2-auricled at the top; stigmas capillary. Seed erect, testa coriaceous, albumen granular; embryo horseshoe-shaped. i

M. tibeticum, Hook. JF. L c.

WESTERNS TIBET; Topedunga, north of Kumaon, Strachey § Winterbottom. SIKKIM; at Tungu, alt. 12-14,000 ft., J. D. H. i

Stem branched from the base, branches 1-2 in., slender. Leaves i-i in., green, rather fleshy, nerves indistinct ; petiole half as long. Flowers microscopic.—A very Conspicuous plant.

9. CORISPERMUM, Linn.

Annual stiff herbs. Leaves alternate, rigid, l-nerved, narrow, floral margined with white, hiding the short spikes. Flowers 2-sexual, ebracteo- ate. Sepals 1-3, unequal, scarious. Stamens 1-5, unequal. Utricle €xserted, orbicular or oblong, compressed, hardened, margined or winged; stigmas subulate, recurved. Seed erect, adherent to the pericarp, testa coriaceous, albumen floury : embryo annular.—Species 8, S. Europe, N.

and W. Asia, China, N.W. America.

C. hyssopifolium, Linn.; Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 930; glabrous or Softly hairy, diffusely branched from the base, leaves Jinear or narrowly near orate obtuse, spikes axillary and termina? e or lax, practs

th p OS i i Mog. i . Prodr. xiii. 2. ; Sibth, FL Cree tL. or margin white. Mog. in

Cam ESTERN TIBET; alt. 10-15,000 ft., Falconer, Thomson.—DisTRIB. S. France,

10. CHENOLEA, Thunb.

Tomentose silky or vi erbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, narrow, quire. owers inate, axillary, 2-sexual and female, immersed in wool, *bracteate. Perianth with 5 incurved lobes, at length closing over the utricle, with the lobes usually tubercled or spinous at the back. Stamens 5. sti ricte membranous, included in the crustaceous or coriaceous perianth ;

igmas 2-3, capillary. Seed orbicular, horizontal, testa thin, albumen

10 CXVII. CHENOPODIACEX. (J. D. Hooker) [Chenolea.

scanty; embryo annular.—Species 20, S. Europe, N. Africa, Temp. Asia, Australia, with one N. American and one S. African.

1. C. divaricata, Hook. f.; annual, erect, excessively branched from the base and upwards, softly rufous villous, leaves linear obtuse, fruiting perianth with 5 acute dorsal straight spines about as long as the diameter of the disk. Echinopsilon divaricatus, Kar. & Kiril. in Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Mosq. 736. E. tibeticus, Herb. Ind. Or. H. f. & Thoms.

WESTERN TIBET; alt. 11-14,000 ft., Thomson, &c.—DisTRiB. Soongaria, W. China.

Whole plant clothed with long soft spreading hairs, Stem 4-15 in., stout, straight in well-developed specimens, sometimes as thick as a goose-quill, very leafy, striped green and white; branches innumerable, forming a pyramidal mass. Leaves }-1} in. long, soft, mottled green and white (when freed of hairs). Clusters of flowers axillary.

Perianth minute; sepals short, villous. Stamens as long as the sepals. Utricle depressed ; styles 2, filiform.

2. ©. ? sedoides, Hook. f.; annual, tall, slender, erect, hoary-tomen- tose or glabrate, branches ascending very slender, leaves fleshy semiterete green some filiform others oblong and minute glabrous or the .upper villous, clusters 2-3-fld. in long slender spikes shorter than the floral leaves, perianth villous, fruiting with conical spines equalling the diameter of the disk or shorter often unequal, Kochia sedoides, Schrad. Neue. Journ. 1809, 86; Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 926. Echinopsilon sedoides, Mog. in Ann. Se. Nat. Ser. 2. 127, and in DC. Prodr. xii. 2. 136. Salsola sedoides, Pall. Voy. 280, t. 41, f. 2. S. cinerea, Waldst. & Kit. Pl. Hung. ii. 110, t. 106. Sueda sedifolia, Pall. Illust. t. 32, 33, 34.

ScINDE, Stocks.—DISTRIB. Siberia, Soongaria, Caucasus to Bulgaria. The specimens are flowerless, but seem to belong to this species. Stem white. Leaves y- in., often gibbous at the base below, then at the tips of the branches

longer and villous with tawny hairs, but for which the plant might be taken for a ueda,

11. KOCHIA, Roth.

Villous or pubescent rarely glabrous undershrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate, sessile, narrow, entire. Flowers minute, 2-sexual and female, axillary, ebracteate. Perianth subglobose, lobes 5 incurved, fruiting closing over the utricle coriaceous girt by 5 free or confluent horizontal wings. Stamens 5; anthers large, exserted. Utricle depressed, membranous; style slender, stigmas 2-3 capillary. Seed orbicular, horizontal, testa membra- nous, albumen scanty; embryo annular.—Species 20, S. Europe, Temp. Asia, N. and S. Africa, Australia, N.W. America.

* Perennials.

1. K. prostrata, Schrad. Neue. Journ. 1809, 85; a villously pubes- cent low undershrub with a very stout woody rootstock, branches slender erect or spreading, leaves flat linear subacute, clusters in long leafy spikes, wings of fruiting perianth subquadrate hard and searious strongly nerved crenate about equalling the diameter of the disk. Boiss. Fl. Orient. iv. 923; Mog. in DC. Prodr. xii. 2. 132. Salsola prostrata, Linn.; Jacq.

fL ys t. 294. Chenopodium Augustanum, All. Fi. Pedem. ii. 198,

WESTERN HIMALAYA; in the dry regions of Kunawur and Zanskar; and in WESTERN TinzT, alt. 10-14,000 ft., Thomson, &c.—DistRis. Westwards to Spain nud N. Africa, Siberia, Central Asia.

Kochia.]: CXVII. CHENOPODIACE&. (J.D. Hooker.) 11

Rootstock as thick as the thumb ; branches very numerous, 6-10 in., as well as the leaves and flowers densely fulvous-villous. Leaves i-i in., nerveless. Spikes slender, Fruiting-calyz 4-3 in. diam., margins of adjacent wings approximate.

** Annuals (always ?).

2. K. odontoptera, Schrenk in Bull. Acad. Petersb. i. 361 (2848) ; annual, diffusely branched from the base, densely tomentose, leaves small short flat linear acute, clusters in long or short simple or branched leafy spikes, wings of fruiting perianth cuneate or flabellate scarious strongly nerved crenate-lobed about equalling the diameter of the disk. Boiss. FÌ. Orient. iv. 924, K. stellaris, Belang. Voy. Or. Ic. ined. K. odontoptera & K. stellaris, Mog. Enum. Chenopod. 93, and in DC. Prodr. xii. 139. Panderia pilosa, Herb. Ind. Or. H. J. & T. in part.

P WESTERN TIBET, alt. 8-12,000 ft., Thomson.—DISTRIB. Affghanistan, Turkestan, ersia,

Root sometimes as thick as the finger and possibly perennial; branches long or short, slender; pubescence closer and paler than in K. prostrata ; leaves much shorter,

in. long; wings of fruiting perianth narrower, contracted at the base, the margins of adjacent ones distant.—I follow Boissier in identifying this with Schrenk's - odontoptera.,

. 9. K. scoparia, Schrad. Neue. Journ. 1809, 85; annual, glabrous "d Pubescent, strict, erect, leaves green linear-lanceolate acute, clusters in lea y panicled spikes, wings of the fruiting perianth short semicircular

Scarious nerved entire shorter than the diameter of the disk. Boiss. FT. Orient. iv. 925; Mog. in DC. Prodr. xiii. 2. 130. Chenopodium scoparia, inn,

Norru-West INDIA, Royle, Jacquemont.—DisrmrIB. N. and Central Asia to

3pan and westward to Spain.

A tall herb, 3-5 ft.; branches erect and stem white smooth, usually glabrous, the Ultimate twigs pilose or villous. Leaves 1-1} in., midrib distinct. Fruiting-perianth Tearibed as being very variable—The characters given above apply to the only

ndian specimen I have seen; it is Royle’s, and without particular locality ; others ve the wings reduced to a short acute tubercle, or are quite simple.

4K. indica, Wight Ic. t. 1791; annual? softly villous, diffusely branched from the base, branchlets divaricate long, leaves small elliptie or Inear-oblong acute, wings of fruiting perianth short broadly triangular- kate obtuse thick nerveless much shorter than the diameter of the disk. mifithii, Bunge in Boiss. Fl. Orient. xiii. 2.924. Panderia pilosa, Herb. nd, Or. H. f. a T. in part. sa] Nortu-Wesr INDIA, from Delhi to the Indus, common. DECCAN PENINSULA t soils at Coimbatore, Wight,— DISTRIB. Afighanistan. NEN ; ranches of this closely resemble long ones of K. prostrata in hairiness, &c., a t fre jit 1$ much more straggling, the plant is apparently annual, and the winga Nel Fuiting perianth are very different. Wight states that the flowers are qune me fe ey and I think it probable that fertile males are on different, plants fro V or hermaphrodite. Boissier observed that Wight’s plant is se sane As tri thii, but was unaware that Wight had published it. The Panjab plant dis- for buted under * Herb. Ind. Or. H. £, & T." as K. scoparia, is, I think, rather referable . indica. P oi

XII. ARTHROCNEMUM, Moq.

Fleshy leafless joi inute, 2-sexual, 2-3 ointed shrubs or herbs. Flowers minute, together in the axils of the cine of sessile cone-like spikes, 2-bracteate.

12 CXVII. CHENOPODIACES. (J.D. Hooker.) [Arthrocnemum.

Perianth obpyramidal, 3-4-gonous. Stamen 1. Utricle compressed, membranous; stigmas 2-3. Seed inverse, compressed, testa membranous, albumen fleshy; embryo dorsal, comma-shaped, radicle stout inferior.— Species 7 or 8, of temperate and tropical saline places.

1. A. indicum, Mog. Chenopod. Enum. 113, and in DO. Prodr. xiii. 2. 151; stem prostrate woody, branches short diffuse ascending, joints 1-3 in. diam., spikes cylindric broader than the joints, floral joints very short hardly 2-lipped concealing the flowers. Ung. Sternb. in Atti Bot. Congr. Firenz. 1874, 282; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 919. Salicornia indica, Willd. in Nov. Act. Hist. Nat. ii. 3, ex Vahl Enum.i.10; Wight Ic. t. 737; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 185, and Ed. Carey & Wall. i. 84; Grah. Cat. Bomb. Pl. 171.

BENGAL; in salt marshes, Roxburgh. NORTHERN Cercars, Wight. BOMBAY, Graham, &c.—Di1sTRIB. Trop. Africa. ..

Stems several feet long, branches opposite and alternate, 1-3 in. high ; joints $-3 in. long, mouth slightly dilated. Spikes j-l in. long, joints à in. deep, cup- shaped, closely imbricate, fruiting very spongy with thin margins. Fruiting-perianths 3 together, shorter than the cup-shaped joints, closely appressed, laterally compressed, spongy, gibbous towards the axis of the spike, flat towards the cup; top broadly truncate with a minute hole for the protrusion of the stigmas. Stamens not seen. Utriele adnate to the perianth, ovoid, compressed, indurated. Seed free, erect, orbi- cular, testa membranous ; embryo and albumen of the genus.

2. A. ? glaucum, Ung. Sternb. in Atti Bot. Congr. Firenz. 1874, 283; shrubby, densely branched, joints 4-à in diam., spikes hardly stouter than the branches, floral joints not closely imbricating, fruit exposed. Boiss.

Fl. Orient. iv. 932. A fruticosum, var. glaucum, Mog. in DC. Prodr. xii. 2. 151.

Deccan PENINSULA, Herb. Wight (Kew Distrib. No. 2474, 2475). CEYLON, Thwaites.—DistR1B. Mediterranean, W. Asia, Trop. Africa. ;

Apparently tall, stem below as thick as the little finger ; branches many, erect or ascending, slender. Male flowers (in threes, consisting of 3 stamens each in a mem- branous perianth P) Female spikes about as long as broad, obscurely 2-lipped. Utricle flagon-shaped, enclosed in the broadly ovoid spongy perianth, which has a minute hole for the protrusion of the stigmas. Seeds orbicular, testa black thinly crustaceous ; embryo and albumen of the genus.—I am not quite sure as to the structure, &c., of the male flowers (No. 2474), and am doubtful as to its distinctness from A. fruticosum. It is, I think, monecious.

XIII. SALICORNIA, Linn.

Herbs or shrubs with the habit of Arthrocnemum, but with the flowers sunk in cavities of the joints. Perianth obpyramidal, 3—4-toothed, fruiting spongy. Stamens 1-2. Utricle included in the spongy perianth, membranous ; stigmas subulate. Seed erect, compressed, testa hispid with hooked hairs, albumen 0; embryo conduplicate, radicle inferior parallel to the folds of the cotyledons.—Species 8, temperate and tropical.

S. brachiata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 84, and Ed. Wall. & Carey, i. 82; perennial erect with diffuse opposite rather slender branches, joints stout shortly bifid, lobes rounded, spikes slender cylindric. Wall. Cat. 6941; Wight Ic. t. 738; Mog. in DC. Prodr. xiii. 2. 145; Ung. Sternb. in Atti

Bot. Congr. Firenz. 1874, 304. Arthrocnemum indicum, Thwaites Enum.

BENGAL; in salt

i marshes, Zozburgh. TANJORE, Wight. CEYLON, north of the island, Z'Awaites.

Salicornia. } CXVII. CHENOPODIACEX. (J. D. Hooker.) 13

à Stem woody, 12-18 in., thick at the base, much branched; branches about i-l in. diam.; lobes of joints with (when dry) membranous margins. Flowers 3-nate. Stamenl. Utricle ovoid, subacute, styles distinct. Testa thinly coriaceous; embryo hooked, both ends pointing downwards.—Moquin 'erroneously cites Nepal as a habitat, and suggests its not being distinct from S. herbacea, which it does not resemble. Roxburgh describes the perianths as flask-like, fleshy, with a longitudinal slit for the exsertion of stamens and styles, and as adhering together firmly and to the Joints till the seed is ripe.

XIV. SUZEDA, Forsk.

_Herbs or shrubs. Leaves fleshy, terete, rarely flattish. Flowers minute, rank usually 2-sexual, bracteate and 2-bracteolate. Perianth short, 9-lob or-partite; lobes or segments equal or unequal, simple or gibbous orsubwinged. Stamens 5, short. Utricle included, membranous or spongy ; stigmas 2-5, minute, subulate, recurved. Seed erect, oblique or horizontal, testa crustaceous or coriaceous, albumen scanty or 0; embryo plano-spiral. —Species about 40, in saline shores and deserts.

Many annual Species have dimorphic flowers; viz. summer ones with albuminous seeds and crustaceous testa, and autumnal ones with larger almost exálbuminous seeds and a membranous testa. I am far from sure that I have correctly determined the names and Synonymy of the Indian species.

* Perennials. Styles usually 3-5, rarely 2.

l. S. fruticosa, Forsk. FI. Æg. Arab. 70; suberect or decumbent, branches erect or divaricate, leaves $-terete linear or ellipsoid obtuse floral Very short, spikes slender leafy, flowers axillary solitary or 2-3-nate, 2- sexual, fruiting perianth subglobose segments obtuse incurved, styles 3 short, seed vertical or horizontal, testa black shining. Boiss. F7. Orient. iv.

; Mog. in DC. Prodr. xiii. 2. Salsola fruticosa, Linn.; Grah. Cat. Bomb. Pl. 17; Engl. Bot. t. 635; Cav. Ie. t. 285; Sibth. Fl. Grac. t. 255. S. indica, Wall. Cat. 6946 C. S. Lana, Edgew. in Hook. Journ. Bot. ii. (1840) 286; Mog. 7. c. 190.

NonrH-Wrsr Ixpra ; from Delhi, and throughout the Panjab, westward to the ates, common in the plains.—Disrris. Westward to the Atlantic, Africa and

erica,

Stem and branches usually slender. Leaves very variable, }-} in. long.—I have seen DO specimen of Edgeworth’s Salsola Lana, which I assume from his description and locality to be J. fruticosa. Bunge, according to Boissier (Fl. Or. iv. 950, under Haloxylon recurvum) refers it to Schoberia indica.

l 2. S. monoica, Forsk. FI. Æg. Arab. 70 ; shrubby, branches suberect, eaves linear flattish obtuse, spikes leafy panicled, flowers axillary 2-3-nate polygamous, bracts minute scarious entire, fruiting perianth obovate-oblong