VOL. 37






Mu. BOT. GARDZN 1911


Howe, R. Heper, Jr. A manual of the genus Usnea, as represented in North and Middle America, north of the 15th parallel (with plates 1-7)

Berry, Epwarp W. Contributions to the Mesozoic flora of the Atlantic coastal plain—IV. Maryland (with plate 8) -

Wooron, ELMER Ortis. The larkspurs of New Mexico - -

BICKNELL, EUGENE P. The ferns and flowering plants of dace 51


Hirsu, PAULINE E. The development of air chambers in the Ricciaceae - 73 GaTEs, FRANK C. The validity of Helianthus illinoensis as a = - - 79 Witson, Percy. Notes on Rutaceae—III_ - - 85 THOMPSON, ELIZABETH ILSLEY. The a of Taenioma vt plates 9 and Io) HarrPer, Rotanp M. A Ciel and teas trip on the Warrior and mbigbee rivers in the coastal plain of Alabama = ee Per AXEL. Studies on the Rocky Mountain flora—XXI - 127 ABRAMS, LE Roy. Studies on the flora of Southern California - - 149 DowELL, Putip. The violets of Staten Island (with plates 11-18) - - 163 Berry, Epwarp W. Contributions to the Mesozoic flora of the Atlantic coastal plain—V. North Carolina (with plates 19-24) - . - 181 SLosson, MARGARET. One of the hybrids in Dryopteris - - 201 PATTERSON, FLorA W. Doan ses Tritici sp. nov., associated an floret - - 205

sterility of wheat - - HAYNES, CAROLINE COVENTRY. Sshaeseeetpon hians sp. nov. eo a re- vision of the genus and illustrations of the species (with mete ae 215 MACKENZIE, KENNETH KENT. Notes on Carex—VI. - Brown, Harry B. The genus ee with some theories concerning the origin of its species - McGrecor, ErNEst A. Two new seed-plans from ee Lake eae region, California a cie = OOS Bovie, WILLIAM T. The effect of adding sais to fi soil on the amount 2

of non-available water .

CAMPBELL, DoucLtas H. The niaheyeaie of Pandanus coronatus - - 293 Rock, JosErpH F. Some new Hawaiian plants - * - 207 Hotiick, Artuur. A new fossil fucoid (with plate 33) - 2 - 395 Humpureys, Epwin W. The name Buthotrephis gracilis Hall - 309

RYDBERG, PER AXEL. Studies on the Rocky Mountain flora—-XXIL. - 313 Britton, NATHANIEL Lorp. Studies of West Indian plants—II.

STEVENS, NEIL E. Discoid gemmae in the leafy gaunt of New ee 365 RypBERG, PER AxEL. Notes on Rosaceae—IIl. - Ore



BICKNELL, EUGENE P. Have we enough New England blackberries? - 393 Harper, RoLtanp M. A quantitative study of the more conspicuous vege- tation of certain natural subdivisions of the coastal plain, as observed

in traveling from Georgia to New York in oad - - - 405 TayLor, Norman. Local flora notes—V tS 4 - - - - 429 Witson, Percy. Notes on Rutaceae—IV. - - 437

43 RYDBERG, PER AXEL. Studies on the Rocky Mountain fora XXIII. - 443 LEWTON, FREDERICK L. Cienfuegosia Drummondii, a rare Texas plant - 473 ANDREWS, FRANK M. nis shears of the amas of sideman con-

color - - - 477 FARWELL, OLIVER ‘- Other editions of Emory’ s Report, 1 - - 479 RYDBERG, PER AxEL. Notes on Rosaceae—IV. - - 487 Berry, Epwarp W. Contributions to the Mesozoic ora of the Atlantic

coastal plain—VI. Georgia - - - - 503

SMALL, JOHN K. Additions to the flora of ceiaaien Florida - - BRAINERD, EzRA. Five new species of Viola from the South a 7

34 and 35) - - #525 WEstTER, P. J. Pollination experiments with tans - - 529 RYDBERG, PER AXEL. Studies on the Rocky Mountain flora XXIV. - 541

TayLor, NorRMAN. Local flora notes—VII. - - - - 559 ARTHUR, JOSEPH CHARLES. New species of Uredineae VIL. - - 569 BRAINERD, Ezra. Viola palmata and its allies (with plate 36) = - - 581

HarPER, Rotanp M. Notes on the distribution of some plants observed in traveling cae the coastal nes from eee gel to New York in

July, 1909 - oie See Howe, R. HEBER, te The genus Uinea: and its Linneaan nomenclature 605 INDEX TO AMERICAN BOTANICAL LITERATURE (1900-1909) - - - 387 INDEX TO AMERICAN BOTANICAL LITERATURE (1903-1908) - - - 155 INDEX TO AMERICAN BOTANICAL LITERATURE ro aga - - - 87 INDEX TO AMERICAN BOTANICAL LITERATURE (1909) - « 43) 337

INDEX TO AMERICAN BOTANICAL LITERATURE (1910) 207, 265, 439, 481, 519, 563, 611

Dates of Publication

No. 1, for January. Pages 1-50. Issued February 10, 1910. No. 2, for February. 51-96. March 5, 1910. No. 3, for March. 97-162. March 31, 1910. No. 4, for April. 163-214. April 29, 1910. No. 5, for May. 215-272. June 2, 1910. No. 6, for June. 273-344. July 21, 1910 No. 7, for July. 345-392. July 29, 1910. No. 8, for August. 393-442. September 8, 1910. No. 9, for September. 443-486. October 5, 1910. No. 10, for October. 487-522. October 28, Ig10. No. 11, for November. 523-568. November 30, 1910. No. 12, for December. 569-630. January I1, 1911. Errata

Page 31, line 5, for occidentalis, read occidentale.

Page 112, line 3 from bottom, for identity, read identify.

Page 114, line 13 from bottom (second column), after MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA, add (H)

Page 114, line 10 from bottom (first column), after Morus rubra add (h).

Page 115, line 14 from bottom (second column), for Cardiospermum Hali- cacabum, read Cardiospermum Halicacabum.

Page 122, line 2 from bottom, for Buff, read Bluff.

Page 196, line 20, for Geinitzti, read Geinitz#.

Page 199, line 14, for Heeri, read Heerit.

Page 220, line 9 from bottom, for Donnell1, read Donnellit.

Page 251, line 10, for was, read were.

Page 385, line 4 from bottom, for Not all species, read None of the specimens.

Page 385, line 3 from bottom, for belong, read belongs, and for for, read although.

Page 447, lines 10 and 11 from bottom, for Macounii, read Macount.

Page 556, line 4 from bottom, for Flodmannit, read Flodmanit.

Page 557, line 16, for brevifolius, read brevifolrum.

Page 559, line 2 from bottom, for Schuykill, read Schuylkill.

VOL. 37 JANUARY, 1910 NO. |





Associate €Cditors

JouN HENDLEY BARNHART Tracy ELtiot HAZEN JEAN BROADHURST _ WILLIAM ALPHONSO Murriit PHILIP DOWELL CHARLES Louis POLLARD ALEXANDER WILLIAM Evans HERBERT MAULE RICHARDS CONTENTS A manual of the genus Usnea, as ce sie a in North and Middle Ameren north of the 15th parallel, (Plates 1-7.) .. R. HEBER HOWE, Jr. ft

Contributions to ty Se flora of the Atlabtie ae plain—IV. Mary- land. DWARD W. BERRY





President, ! HENRY H. RUSBY, M.D. 3

Bi Ri sh

Recoriting prttouret ; ; oy & PERCY WILSON. WILLIAM MANSFIELD, » Pan .

oe k New York Cy. seat College of Pharmacy, . . : 115 West ai St., New York Cy. i :

Vol. 37 No 1 BULLETIN



A manual of the genus Usnea, as represented in North and Middle America, north of the 15th parallel R. HeBer Howe, Jr. (WITH PLATES I-7)

In my Preliminary review of the genus Usnea”’ (Bull. Torrey Club 36 : 309~327. pl. 27-23. 1909), based on a long field and labo- ratory study of the plants as represented particularly in New Eng- land, I made no attempt to cast aside the nomenclature adopted by Tuckerman, the recognized authority for American workers. I intimated then, however, that a broader study of the genus, with the application of the present rules of nomenclature, would lead no doubt to a better understanding and hence to a more lucid taxonomy. I have now reached a point where the continuous use of a carefully determined classification finds no inadequacies, and I therefore see no reason to withhold its publication for a longer period of time, as I believe it soundly based and likely therefore to meet with general adoption, at least by the broader and more conservative workers. It is in no way new, but rather very old.

A revision of the genus becomes necessary for three reasons : first, the current use of a nomenclature that is illegitimate accord- ing to the accepted rules; secondly, the unwarranted use of the specific term daréaza, fulfilling at least a sectional, if not almost a generic conception ; and, lastly, the hopeless misunderstanding of species and subspecies, evidenced by the >xtensive synonymy. Linnaeus’ species Lichen plicatus, L. barbutus, L. hirtus, and L.

[The cil for December, 1909 (36: 651-720) was issued 28 D 1909. } ]


floridus, here named in order of pagination * priority, all seem to intergrade and belong to one species ; with a broader conception, however, true transitional examples are in reality rare, if in some cases occurring at all.

The difficulty has been that too many purely contingent varieties have been described and recognized, so that the Linnaean conception and nomenclature has been embarrassed ; whereas, for the papillate species (all he considered), it was exceedingly near the proper elucidation. Each of the following species represents a variable, but a distinct, plant, found both fruited and sterile. Though true intergrades may appear occasionally, they are not im- portant enough to make it necessary for us to blind our under- standing by adopting a special nomenclature to explain their presence ; if we should do this and should follow the present rules of nomenclature, we must cast aside appropriate names, applicable original descriptions, and good recognizable figures, and the general procedure of nearly two hundred years, and use the names simply as handles with no other significant connection whatever. This, it is plain, would be distinctly undesirable.

That there must come a reaction from the naming of contingent phases in lichenology is evident. There is no halting if once it is begun, and the inevitable result is, names standing for unique individuals, and type localities reduced to certain fallen logs or crumbling ledges. The law of variability is being sadly over- looked. A study of the limits of variation in species will throw hundreds of names already given into a now tangled synonymy.

Two distinct types of subspecies have been recognized, only one of which has a proper claim to recognition. The first type is what I have termed in my former paper ‘“ contingent phases,’ states of development brought about by very local and temporary conditions ; as a result of separations thus based we have in our synonymy such subspecies and forms as /urta, rubiginea,etc. The second type of subspecies, based on the results of actual morpho- logical differentiation, due to the fixed but varied environmental effects of wide geographical distribution or of altitude, are, it is needless to say, scientifically grounded and worthy of recogni- tion, if the separations of this nature are well defined and not of

* Unrecognized by the Vienna Rules.


trivial and opinionable character. Of this type we have, curiously enough, in our area no named examples in this genus. Others based on mere morphological reduction, a condition seen in U, plicata, U. longissima, and U. angulata, as represented by compar- ing specimens from the southern and northern limits of their range, hardly need titles of separation, nor do the abnormally developed examples growing in regions under particularly acceptable condi- tions. Usnea strigosa (Ach.) and U. californica Herre represent this class

UsneEa * (Dill.) Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 7. 1763

DESCRIPTION : Apothecia lateral, subterminal or terminal, peltate, applanate, coriaceous, emarginate, periphery generally ciliate ; thalline exciple glabrous, lacunose, echinate or ciliate, con- colorous, pale stramineous or virescent, sometimes pruinose (rarely dichroic-red). Asct clavate, containing 8 spores ; paraphyses gela- tinous, filamentous. Sores monoblast, hyaline, ellipsoid. Sfer- mogones \ateral, immersed in shallow, colorless conceptacles. Sterigmata simple or subsimple. Spermatia fusiform or acicular- cylindrical, incrassate, apices truncate. Soredia normal, occa- sional on all forms. Cepha/odia lateral, concolorous or darker, sometimes black. Zha/lus erect, subpendulous, or pendulous, branched, fibrillose or efibrillose, terete, compressed or angulate, nitidous, ‘glabrous, scabrous, squamose, or inion papillate or epapillate, pale stramineous, virescent, green, or tawny ; cortex subcrustose, subcontiguous, bambusaceous, or articulate ; gonidia Protococcus”’ ; + medulla cottonous, central indurated chondroid cord percurrent.{

Thallus papitlate UsNEA FLORIDA (L.) Web.

Type: Species based on Usnea vulgatissima of Dillenius ; the Dillenian specimens “typical and fertile’’ are in the Dillenian her- barium, Botanic Gardens, Oxford, England, and are “‘ Usnea florida (L.)”’ fide Crombie. §

* From the Arabi snah

+ ** Cystococcus humicola’’ according to A. Schneider, Text-Book Lich, 99. 1897.

¢ For Ler ree see Schwendener in Naegeli, Beitr. Wiss Bot. 2: 110-

on at 1860. lander, oer Lich. pl. 8. f. 7-21. 1858~60 ; and Schulte, ae Bot. Coane: i 1-22 ;

3 Jour. Linn. Soc. 17: cae 1880.



Type LocALity: Europae.’

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION: ‘‘ Filamentosus ramosus erectus, scu- tellis radiatis,”’ L. Sp. Pl. 1156. 1753.

Figures: [Micheli, Nov. Pl. Gen. p/. 39. fi se. 1739.]* [ Dill. Hist. Musc. p/. 73. f. 12, a,b,c, d; f. 13, a,6,c,d. 1741.] Willd. Rom. & Ust. Mag. Bot. 2: pf. 7. f. 3. 1788. Hoffm. Descript, et. Aduni: Pi..Lich; 2:-p/.. jan 72. 6-4 764, . ACK Kongl. Vet.-Acad. Nya Handl. 16: f/. 8. f. zr. 1795. Schrad. Jour. Bot. 1: f/. 3. f. 1, 2. 1799. Sowerby, Eng. Bot. 13: pi. 872. 1801; 19: pl. 1354. 1804. Ach. Meth. Lich. p/. 6. f. 3. 1803. Sprengel, Anleit. 3: p/. zo. f. ros. 1804. Fée, Essai sures Crypt $1.3.f. 4,6 5 pt. 32. f. 5. 1824,

Synonymy: [ Usnea vulgatissima, ete. Dill. loc. cit. 67.| ©

Lichen floridus L. loc. cit. 1156.

Usnea florida Web.; Wigg. Prim. Fl. Holsat. g1. 1780.

Diacnosis: Thallus erect, cespitose.

DescrIpTION —typical: Zhadl/us erect, cespitose, rigid, terete, virescent ; cortex soon scabrous, and annularly scarred ; primary branches coarse, divaricate (max. length 12 cm.); secondary branches subpedicellate, subdichotomous ; /dri/s short (6 mm.), sudeguiform, frequent or stipate, rectangularly divergent, rarely dichotomous. Apothecia common, terminal, ample, sometimes lacerate; disk pruinose, flesh-colored or buff, rarely virescent; periphery and thalline exciple ciliate. Spores 4-8 » x 3-6 yp.

CONTINGENT PHASES: (@) With age blackening, crustose, brittle, leprous, abraded, nodular-bambusaceous, articulate, white medulla exposed, indurated cord visible.

(6) Branches sorediate, soredia often becoming confluent near the apices (Lichen hirtus L. loc. cit. 1155).

(c) Dichroic (red, either affecting all or part of the plant) (Usvea florida, var. rubiginea Michx. FI. Bor.-Am. 2: 332. 1803).

(2) Strigose, apothecia very ample, disk now virescent (Usxea florida, y strigosa Ach. Meth. Lich. 2: 310. 1803). This phase ~ is most common in Mexican and Arizona plants.

(e) Apothecia small, cyathiform.

(7) Reduced, very cespitose, branches hispid and echinate.

(g) Branches somewhat naked, furcate, and apices attenuate.

(2) Nitidous or granulate, internodes somewhat inflated, apices

* Pre-Linnaean references are enclosed in brackets.


of fibrils recurved and sorediate (Usnea barbata florida f. sorediifera Arn. Flora 57: 569. 1874).

SupsTRATA : Living deciduous and coniferous trees, specimens generally degenerate on other substrata.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: Common throughout North America, represented in all zones, and reaching its greatest develop- ment and luxuriance in the mountains of Mexico (8000 ft.), and becoming rare and poorly exhibited in the upper Boreal zone. It is not reported from Labrador, but it is generally recorded from Alaska, whence I have seen normal and well-fruited specimens.

OpsERVATIONS: This plant, Usnea barbata, a florida Fr. of Tuckerman, is the most cosmopolitan species of the genus ; both its sterile and fertile forms, however, show enormous variation. It is nevertheless the typical species of the papillate group and makes the most-natural starting point for the taxonomy and an understanding of the genus. (‘‘ Typus speciei est forma florida,” PreLich Barop. 19). 183%;)


Type: Species based on Usnea vulgaris of Dillenius; the “fertile ’’ Dillenian specimen “sufficiently characteristic, though

. broken up into three portions,” is in the Dillenian herbarium, Botanic Gardens, Oxford, England, andis Usnea ceratina Ach.” fide Crombie.

Type Locatity: ‘‘ Europae & Americae borealis.” (‘‘ Habeo eandem ex Virginia a Jo. Mitchellio et ex Pensylvania a Jo. Bartramo transmissam.”’ Dill.

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION: Filamentosus pendulus, ramis im- plexis, scutellis radiatis,” L. Sp. Pl. 1154. 1753.

Ficures: [Dill. Hist. Muse. p/. zz. fz. 1741.] Sowerby, Eng. Bot. 4: pl. 2. 1795. Ach. Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. 7: pl. 7.f. 2. 1815. Schaer. Enum. Crit. Lich. Europ. f/. 7. f. 7. 1850. <A. Schneider, Guide Study Lich. p/. 4. 1904.

Synonymy: [Usnea vulgaris, etc. Dill. loc, cit. 56.]

Lichen plicatus L. Sp. Pl. 1154. 1753.

Usnea plicata Web.; Wigg. Prim. Fl. Holsat. 91. 1780.

Diacnosis: Thallus pendulous, plicate, strongly papillate; short rectangularly divergent fidrils sparse or wanting.


DESCRIPTION typical: TZhallus pendulous, coarse, pliant, terete (rarely angularly deformed), cortex at Jength proximally scabrous, annularly scarred, stramineous to virescent ; primary branches coarse, at length intricately plicate, subpatent (max. length 130 cm.); secondary branches much divided, subdichotomous ; fiorils polymorphous, tortuous, sparse or wanting, simple or com- monly subdichotomous. <Afothecia not uncommon, lateral and sessile, or subterminal, ample (1 cm.), now lacerate, disk flesh- colored or buff, periphery naked or ciliate. Spores as in U. forida.

CONTINGENT PHASES: (a) Asin U. florida.

(2) Branches sorediate (Usnea ceratina, 3} scabrosa Ach. Lich. Univ. 620. 1810).

(c) Dichroic (red). This condition is rare, and never so far as observed affecting all parts of a plant (Usnea ceratina, var. 2 sca- brosa, form ferruginascens Crombie, Trans. Essex Field Club 4: 60. 1885).

(2) Naked of fibrils, the latter rarely present as a minute his- pid clothing (PLATE 3, FIGURE 2).

SuBSTRATA : Deciduous and coniferous trees, occasionally on dead wood.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: Common in the Austral and Transition zones, occurring also in a reduced, sterile, but perfectly characteristic state in the Boreal zone, reaching its most dwarf con- dition in Alaska (and Siberia).* It is best exhibited on the Pacific coast (Marin and San Mateo counties, California), where the plants are stramineous, and very pendulous (130 cm.), reaching possibly its highest development in Alpine Creek Cafion (1000 ft.), San Mateo Co., California, in the species (?) Usnea californica Herre, and in Mexico. Atlanticand Gulf coast specimens are less pendu- lous (30 cm.), generally virescent, and occasionally destitute of fibrils (see Bull. Torrey Club 36: f/. 27).

OBSERVATIONS : I have included under this species all forms heretofore separated under ceratina. The slight variation of Usnea plicata that answers to Schaerer’s U. ceratina does not occur in North America so far as I have observed, nor is the form constant or desirable of recognition in the Old World according to the material I have examined, some of which was determined by Schaerer himself.

* This is U. dardata, d plicata Fr. of Tuckerman and most modern authors.


Usnea plicata barbata (L.) R. H. Howe, comb. nov.

Type: Species based on Usnea barbata of Dillenius; the “sterile”? Dillenian specimen is in the Dillenian herbarium, Botanic Gardens, Oxford, England, and has been determined by Crombie as ‘“‘ Usnea dasypoga (Ach.).”

TyPE LOCALITY: ‘‘Europae & Americae septentrionalis.”’ (‘‘ Eandem habeo ex Pensylvania.’’— Dill.)

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION: Filamentosus pendulus subarticu- latus, ramis patentibus,”’ L. Sp. Pl. 1155. 1753.

Ficures: [Dill. Hist. Musc. 7. 72.f. 6. 1741.]

Synonymy : [ Usnea barbata, ete. Dill. loc. cit. 63.)

Lichen barbatus L. Sp. Pl. 1155. 1753.

Usnea barbata Web.; Wigg. Prim. Fl. Holsat. 91. 1780.

Diacnosis: Similar to U. plicata but less coarse, secondary branches closely beset with eguzform rectangularly divergent fibrils.

DESCRIPTION —typical: Zhad/us pendulous, less coarse than in U. plicata, terete, scabrous, annularly scarred, stramineous to virescent, papillae now sparse, often confined to proximal portions of primary branches (now ruptured-sorediate) ; primary branches proximally coarse, rarely at length intricate, subpatent (max. length 120 cm.) ; secondary branches simple, occasionally dichot- omous ; fidri/s equiform (2-8 mm.), subflexuous, stipate, simple, rarely dichotomous, rectangularly divergent. Afothecia as in plicata, but smaller (6 mm.) and very infrequent. Spores as in U. florida.

CONTINGENT PHASES : (a, 6, c) As of U. plicata.

(2) Primary branches darkening.

SupstTraATA: As in U. plicata.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION : Common throughout the upper Austral and Transition zones, occurring also in the lower Boreal. Like the last, it is better exhibited on the Pacific coast, where the plants are stramineous, intricate and very pendulous (130 cm.). On the North Atlantic coast it is virescent, and rarely obtains a pendular length of over 35 cm. Here also it is less intricate, gen- erally consisting of six or eight simple branches arising from a single base.

OpssERVATIONS: This plant, Usnea barbata, c dasypoga Fr. of Tuckerman, is similar to U. p/icata, but it is never so coarse, its secondary branches are simple or subsimple and have rectangu-


larly divergent equiform fibrils. These secondary branches taken alone strongly suggest U. dongissima, but are generally somewhat papillate or papillo-sorediate, and not covered with a white fari- naceous soredial crust. Dillenius’ figure shows a characteristic intermediary condition, some of the secondary branches suggesting the species U. plicata, while the majority are nearly typical of the present subspecies. This intermediary state is not uncommon, a specimen from Newfoundland (Waghorne, 1890, called U. dongts- sima) in the herbarium of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- delphia, almost exactly duplicates the subject of Dillenius’ figure, showing the unusual dichotomously branched fibrils.

Thallus epapillate


Type: Not indicated, but the specimen on which the species was based is in the Acharian herbarium, Universitetets Botaniska Institution, Helsingfors, fide Prof. Dr. Fred. Elfring, 7 /¢z., Apr. 7, 1909.

Type Locatity: ‘* Nova Scotia” [‘‘ Menzies,” fide Elfring].

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION: ‘‘Thallo subcrustaceo filamentoso tenerrimo tereti diffuso albo-pallescente, lorulis capillaceis ramosis fibrillis subsecundis ; orbillis concoloribus margine tenui inflexo nudo integro,” Ach. Meth. Lich. 2: 312. 1803.

Figure: Ach. /oc. cit. pl. 8. f. 3.

Synonymy: Usnea trichodea Ach. loc. cit, 2: 312. 1803.

Diacnosis: Thallus pendulous, glabrous, fibrils capillaceous.

DEscRIPTION typical: Zhal/us pendulous, slender, mollitin- ous, terete, virescent, cortex g/adrous or nitidous, annularly scarred, at length bambusaceous; primary branches slender, at length proximally scabrous, much divided (max. length 25 cm.) ; second- ary branches subdichotomous, much divided; fiéri/s capillaceous, tortuous. Afpothecta common, marginate, at length lacerate, lateral, sessile, small (diameter 4 mm.), disk flesh-colored or buff, margins naked or sparsely ciliate. Spores 4-8 uw x 3-6 p.

CONTINGENT PHASES: (@) Asin U. plicata. -

(4) Cortex now locally ruptured by soredia.

SUBSTRATA: Coniferous trees, frequently on dead wood, and occasionally on accompanying deciduous trees.

R. H. Howe: Manual OF THE GENUS USNEA 9

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: Abundant throughout the Tropical, Austral, Transition, and Canadian zones on the Atlantic coast, occurring from Newfoundland (Waghorne) to Cuba (Wright), extending westward as far as Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota (Fink), and south to Tennessee, Missouri, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas, U. cavernosa seeming to replace it from here westward, though (in a peculiar condition) it was recorded from the Yellow- stone region in 1872 by Willey.

The type or topotypes of the variety from Texas described by Miller I have not seen; the following original description is, however, applicable to a plant sent me by Professor Macoun from Vancouver Island, at the entrance to Barclay Sound, collected in 1909. A microscopic study of this plant shows it, nevertheless, to be closely affiliated to U. /ongissima, if not simply a young or abnormal specimen of the latter species. Usnea trichodea var. ciliata Mill.-Arg.” was described as follows: “thallus more U. trichodeae tenuis, laevis et albido-cinereus, at longe aut longissime ramigerus et more U. longissimae dense fibrillosus ; apothecia parva, 1.5—-3 mm. lata, raro diametro 6 mm. attingentia, ambitu ciliis 3-8 circ. 2-5 mm. longis ornata, dorso subinde pauci-fibril- ligera et elongatione ramilli deflexi saepius praedita, discus glauco- albidus v. albo-carneus ; sporae ellipsoideae v. subgloboso-ellip- soideae, 5-8 » longae. Habitat ad ramos et ramulos arborum prope Dallas, Texas.”

UsnEA ArtTicuLata (L.) Hoffm.

Type: Species based on Usnea capillacea and U. nodosa of Dillenius ; the sterile’’ Dillenian specimen is in the Dillenian herbarium, Botanic Gardens, Oxford, England, and is the species commonly understood as “‘ Usnea articulata (L.)”’ fide Crombie.

Type LOCALITY: Europae australis.”’

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION: Filamentosus articulatus, ramulis tenuissimis punctatis,” L. Sp. Pl. 1156. 1753.

Figures: [Dill. Hist. Musc. p/. rz. f. 4. 1741.] Sowerby, Eng. Bot. 4: p/. 258 (?). 1801.

Synonymy: [ Usnea capillacea et nodosa, etc. Dill. loc. cit. 60.]

Lichen articulatus L. Sp. Pl. 1156. 1753.

Usnea articulata Hoffm. Deutsch. Fl. 2: 133. 1795.


Diacnosis: Zhallus pendulous, primary branches articulate and inflated.

DESCRIPTION typical: Z7ha//us pendulous, catenate, terete or compressed, virescent to tawny, cortex nitidous or glabrous (sec- ondary branches and fibrils now papillo-sorediate); primary branches deformed, articulate, internodes inflated (max. diameter 5 mm.), foveolate, dichotomous, glabrous (max. length 30 cm.) ; secondary branches subdichotomous, much divided, scabrous ; fibrils capillaceous, tortuous. Apothecia rare, subterminal, small (max. diameter 5 mm.), disk pruinose, flesh-colored or buff, periph- ery ciliate. Spores 8-10 x 5-Op.


SUBSTRATA: Trees, for the most part deciduous.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: Reported by Tuckerman as ‘‘ill-exhibited in North America; but it is not wholly wanting on the Pacific Coast ; Scouler ; Macoun.’ Professor Macoun reports it (Cat. Can. Pl. '7: 61. 1902) from [Hastings] Burrard Inlet, British Columbia, Canada (1889),* and also from Victoria, Van- couver, British Columbia, Canada (1875). The Victoria record is the one to which Tuckerman referred; the specimen is now in the Museum at Kew, England (fide Macoun). Professor Bruce Fink in ‘‘ Contributions to the Lichens of Minnesota— VII” (Minne- sota Bot. Stud. 3: 194. 1903) records three specimens (vos. 143, 711, 1636, herb. Univ. Minn.) collected respectively at Beaudette, Emo, and Harding in 1901. These specimens, which Professor Fink writes me he was already aware were wrongly determined, have been kindly sent me by Dr. C. O. Rosendahl of the Univer- sity of Minnesota and prove to be typical Usnea cavernosa Tuck.

Professor Macoun has sent me a sterile specimen, collected Aug. 16, 1909, at Ucluelet Arm, north of Barclay Sound, British Columbia, which, though no doubt closely approaching this species and to be referred only here, is, nevertheless, decidedly atypical. Itis only slightly inflated, decidedly papillate, not foveo- late, and has non-capillaceous fibrils. It certainly ill exhibits true Usnea articulata.

The inclusion of this species as a North American plant is only empirical.

* This specimen (no. 10), kindly sent me by Professor Macoun, is A/ectoria och- +oleuca sarmentosa Nyl.


OBSERVATIONS : This species is certainly closely allied to U. cavernosa. Except for articulate inflated thallus, it is in every way similar. None of the specimens I have examined have been truly papillate. That it is an accidental monstrosity was the opinion of Fries and later writers. If not a monstrositas’’ its morphological differentiation certainly deserves for it full specific rank. The scarcity of plants of this species in herbaria points to its rarity and limits its study. Only a field investigation of grow- ing plants can solve its true identity.

The variety dinorpha of Miller from Cuba I have been unable to see. The following original description must uphold its own case: Usneaarticulata Hoftm. v. dimorpha Mill. Arg. ; straminea, rami tenues et laevissimi, parce articulati, ramillis modice numerosis aliis capillaribus elongatis laevibus aut minute nodulosis et simul aliis intermixtis confertim divaricato-ramosissimis et crebre tuber- culosis quasi nodulosis praediti; apothecia parvula, straminea, crebre ciliata, cilia breviuscula, simplicia et rudimentarie divaricato- ramulosa et partim nodulosa.— Habitu ad U. dasypogotdis v. exasperatum Mull. Arg. accedit, sed rami minus dense ramilligeri, tenuiores et distincte articulati, parce impressuli, ramilli demum dimorphi. Cuba, ramulicola in Pinal de Sta. Ana, alt. 2400 ped.: Eggers Flor. Ind. Occ. exs. n. 5015.’’ Disposition of type not indicated.


Type: In the Tuckerman herbarium, Botanic Museum, Har- vard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Type Locauity : ‘Ad arbores in oris Lacus Superioris.”’

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION: ‘‘Thallo pendulo laxo molli glaberrimo tereti:compresso plus minus cavernoso ochroleuco, ramis primori- bus simpliciusculis subventricosis attenuatis ad apices dichotome ramosis, ramulis ultimis tenuissime capillaceis ; apotheciis sessilibus radiatis disco albido-pruinoso demum subcarneo margine obscuriori evanescente.’’ Agassiz & Cabot, Lake Superior, etc. 71. 1850.

Ficures: None.

Synonymy: Usnea cavernosa Tuck. Agassiz & Cabot, /oc. cit. Fi EOS

Diacnosis: Zhal/us pendulous, terete or subterete, /oveolate fibrils capillaceous,


DeEscRIPTION —typical: TZhallus pendulous, slender, wzo//i- tinous, terete or subterete, virescent, cortex glabrous or granulose, annularly scarred, at length bambusaceous; pramary branches slender, at length proximally scabrous, foveo/ate (max. length 35 cm.); secondary branches dichotomous, much divided, foveolate ; fibrils capillaceous, tortuous. Apothecia common, emarginate or submarginate, at length lacerate, lateral, sessile, ssva// (diameter 4 mm.), disk flesh-colored or buff, periphery. ciliate. Spores 5-10 ft X 4-7 Hb.


SUBSTRATA: Coniferous and deciduous trees.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: Common in a_ broad _ sense throughout the Transition zone. I have a typical specimen from Brunswick, Maine. It is reported from the White Mountains by Tuckerman, and I have seen two specimens from Plymouth, N. H. It is common in Minnesota about Lake Superior, and I have examined material from Colorado, Washington (Puget Sound, fink), Arizona, and Mexico (Jalaspasco, 10,000-12,000 ft.) ; Nylander records it from Michigan; Leighton from Great Slave Lake, Canada, well within the Boreal zone.


Type: Not indicated, but the specimen on which the species was. based is in the Acharian herbarium, Universitetets Botaniska Institution, Helsingfors, fide Prof. Dr. Fred. Elfring, zx /7tt.

Type Locarity: ‘“ Americae Septentrionalis”’ (Pennsylvania— Muhlenberg).

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION : Thallo pendulo flexuoso subsimplici angulato cinereo-pallido, angulis acutis scabris, fibrillis horizontal- ibus approximatis simplicibus brevibus tereti-attenuatis,’’ Ach. Synop. Meth. Lich. 307. 1814.

Figure: Harris, Bryologist 4: p/. 7.f. —; pl. 2.f.c. 19g01.

Synonymy: Usnea angulata Ach. Joc. cit. 307. 1814.

Diacnosis: Zhallus pendulous, subsimple, axzgudate.

DescriPTIon —typical : Za//us pendulous, simple, rigid, coarse, angulate, stramineous to virescent (at length fuscous), cortex sca- brous, now squamose; primary branches simple, angulate (now compressed particularly in the axils), coarse, dichotomous (max. length m.); secondary branches rare (common in tropical examples), angulate, dichotomous; /bri/s terete (or deformed),

R. H. Howe: MaAnuaAt oF THE GENUS USNEA 13

equiform (2~8 mm. long.), aééenate, stipate, rectangularly divergent, sometimes dichotomous and spiculose e, Apothecia sessile, lateral,

terminal or subterminal on secondary branches, ample (max. diameter 1.5 cm.), thalline exciple smooth or reticulate, periphery and exciple ciliate. Spores 5-9 ux 4-6 p.

CONTINGENT PHASES: Unobserved, except of reduction.

SupsTRATA: Coniferous and deciduous trees.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: This plant is best exhibited in South America, and in our area in Mexico. Throughout the United States it is practically confined to the Austral zone, not having been collected north of about the 43d parallel of latitude, nor west of Minnesota, Iowa, Louisiana, and Texas, or roughly the

97th meridian, except in Mexico.

OpseRVATIONS: The typical fertile plant (Bolivia, Ecuador, Brazil, and Somaliland) is the most gross and coarse representative of the genus. It has been obtained in fruit only in the southern limits of the area under consideration, occurring in a most reduced state, except in Mexico and the West Indies. In color it is vires- cent, soon turning to brown.

UsnEA Loncissima Ach.

Type: Not indicated, but the specimen on which the species was based is in the Acharian herbarium, Universitetets Botaniska Institution, Helsingfors, fide Prof. Dr. Fred. Elfring i /7z.

TYPE LOCALITY: Lusatiae.” |

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION: ‘‘Thallo pendulo filiformi scabro compresso albissimo simpliciusculo longissimo fibrilloso, fibrillis horizontalibus approximatis tortuosis simplicibus cinerascentibus,”’ Ach. Lich. Univ. 626. 1810,

Figures: Ach. Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal.7: pl. 7. f. 5. 1815 [not 1795 as often cited].- Harris, Bryologist 4: p/. 7. 19Ol.

Synonymy: Usnea longissima Ach. Lich. Univ. 626. 1810.

DiaGnosis : Zhallus pendulous, simple, primary branches cov- ered with a white furfuraceous crust (soredia).

DeEscRIPTION —typical: 7ha//us pendulous, simple, mollitinous, subterete or compressed, stramineous to virescent, primary cortex albo-furfuraceous (soredia), fibrils glabrous; primary branches simple, slender (max. length 3 m.), whtte-sorediate ; secondary


branches rare or wanting ; fiérils equiform (5 mm. to 2 cm. long), stipate, rectangularly divergent, rarely dichotomous. <Afothecia (so far practically unknown in North American specimens) seen only in Bavarian examples, terminal on lateral fibrils, very small (max. diameter 3 mm.) subcyathiform, disk concolorous or buff, periphery ciliate.. Spores 7-10 % x 4-6 p.

CONTINGENT PHASES: (@) Fibrils more or less sorediate.

SussTRATA : Coniferous and deciduous trees, occasionally dead wood.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION : Common throughout the Boreal zone, reaching its highest development, like all the Usneas, on the Pacific coast.

OsseERVATIONS: This plantis much reduced throughout our area, and has never been reported in fruit, except from the Santa Cruz peninsula, California (/7erre), where it is still inferior in develop- ment as compared with specimens from Bavaria. In the northern- most limit of its range, and in the east, it is distinctly virescent, whereas in the west and southwest it is stramineous. This charac- teristic color condition is true of all the filamentose Usneas in our area, )

The scarcity of North American material of the typically antarctic lichen Usnea sulphurea (Zoega) Th. Fr., reported only twice from the Arctic regions of North America (Melville Island, R. Brown, Babington ; and Greenland ; _/. Vah/), makes it impossi- ble to give to it the necessary study ; I am inclined, however, to agree with Nylander’s view, and place this dark-disked, at length interruptedly corded species in the genus Meuropogon of Nees and Flotow,* where it seems more naturally to belong,—set apart from the fale-disked, percurrently corded species here included under Usnea. The question of the ciliated apothecia, an unstable character, is not important. The spores here average distinctly larger. The species belongs to the papillate division. The genus Eumitria + of Stirton does not concern us in connection with our area.


The following list of titles is an attempt to give the original

citations and type localities for all the described species of the

* Linnaea, g: 496. 1835. tScot. Nat. 4: 100. 1881,


genus Uszea from North and Middle America, and is as complete as a thorough investigation of the literature can make it, though no doubt it has been impossible to trace all descriptions. The citations have all been verified, and checked twice. No attempt has been made to include all the various published combinations, which have varied from binomials even to quinquenomials (Schaerer).

Usnea angulata Ach. Synop. Meth. Lich. 307. 1814: Americae Septentrionalis.’’

Lichen barbatus L. Sp. Pl. 1155. 1753: Europae & Amer- icae septentrionalis.”’

Usnea californica Herre, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. 7: 345. 1906: ‘Alpine Creek Cafion, San Mateo County, California” = U. plicata (L.) Web.

U. cavernosa Tuck. in Agassiz & Cabot, Lake Superior 171. 1850: ‘* Lacus Superioris.”

U. trichodea var. ciliata, Mill.-Arg. Flora 60: 77. 1877: “‘ Dallas, Texas,”

U. cornuta Flot. Linnaea 17: 16. 1843: ‘In montibus simensibus”” (Abyssinia) ; reported from British America by Stirton.

U. articulata var. dimorpha Mill.-Arg. Flora '74: 372. 1891: “¢ Cuba.”

U. endochrysea Stirt. Scot. Nat.6: 107. 1881: ‘‘ Alabama”’

= U. florida (L.) Web.

U. filaris Ach. Synop. Meth. Lich. 307. 1814: ‘“ America.”

U. filipendula Stirt. Scot. Nat. 6: 104. 1881: America bor.” ; = U. plicata barbata (L.) R. H. Howe.

U. florida var. intermedia Michx. F1. Bor.-Am. 2: 332. 1803: ‘“* Carolina.”

U. jamaicensis Ach. Lich. Univ. 619. 1810: Jamaicae.”

U. lacunosa (Willd. ex Delise MS.) Nyl. Synop. Lich. 271. 1858-60: ‘“‘ America boreali, Michigan” ; = U. cavernosa Tuck.

U. linearis A. Schneider, Guide Study Lich. 167. 1898 ; (?) = U. plicata (L.) Web.

U. florida var. major Michx. FI. Bor.-Am. 2: 332. 1803: Carolina.”

U. mutabilis Stirt. Scot. Nat. 6: 107. 1881: Alabama” = U. florida (L.) Web.


Lichen plicatus L. Sp. Pl. 1154. 1753: ‘“ Europae & Americae borealis.”

Usnea florida var. rubiginea Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. 2: 332. 1803: ‘* Canada.”

U. scoparia Fée, Dict. Class. d’Hist. Nat. 16: 482. 1830: “? Amérique du Nord.”

U. sphacelata R. Brown, Parry’s Ist Voy. app. 307. 1824: “Melville Island”; = Lichen sulphureus Zoega, in Olafsen & Povelsen, Rejse ig. Island, Tilhang 16. 1772.

' U. florida, + strigosa Ach. Meth. Lich. 2: 310. 1803: America septentrionali.”’

U. subfusca Stirt. Scot. Nat.6: 108. 1881: ‘Owen Sound,” Ontario; = U. florida (L.) Web.

U. trichodea Ach. Meth. Lich. 2: 312. 1803: ‘‘ Nova Scotia.”

U. variegata Stirt. Scot. Nat. 6: 105. 1881: ‘Niagara Falls” = U. florida (L.) Web.

To all those persons enumerated in my former paper, to Messrs. A. C. Herre of California, F. G. Blake of Brookline, Mass., Drs. H. E. Hasse of Sawtelle, Cal., Fred. Elfring of Hel- singfors, A. Schneider of California, Prof. John Macoun of Ottawa, and to many others I owe much gratitude, as well as to Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Chief of the Biological Survey, Washington, D. C., for his kind permission to reproduce the map of faunal areas, published in Bulletin 10 of the Survey.


Explanation of plates 1-7 PLATE I Life zones of the United States, by C. Hart Merriam. Orthochromatic reproduc- tion of colored plate (U. S. Dep. Agric., Div. Biol. Survey, Bull. No. 10). All northern Canada, not shown on this map, is in the Boreal zone.

PLATE 2 1. Usnea florida (L.) Web. = [Usnea vulgatissima]. Dillenius’ figure, Hist. Muse. p/. 17. f. 12, 137. I74l. 2. Specimen representing phase (/) from Herbarium Sullivant Moss Chapter. 3. Specimen representing highest type of development (slightly reduced) from herbarium of Dr. L. W. Riddle, Wellesley, Mass. ( Pringle, no. 10755), collected in Cuyamaloza, State of Hidalgo, Mexico.


4. Fruiting branch of Usnea florida (L.) Web. (slightly reduced) showing normal development

5. Microscopic photograph of cross-section of thallus of Usnea florid, showing axis cord, medulla, algal cells, and cortex with papillae.

PLATE 3 Usnea plicata (L.) Web, (4 nat. size), Represents the highest development found in eastern North America. Collected in Plymouth, N. H,, March, 1go1, and kindly loaned for reproduction by Dr. L. W, Riddle from the Herbarium of Wellesley College.

2. Specimen ae St. Martinsville, La,, kindly loaned by Professor Bruce Fink.

oe phase nea pice (L. ) Web. = [ Usnea vulgaris]. Dillenius’ figure, Hist. Muse.

pl ITs oe 4. Seats ae (L.) Web. ey ae a portion of a plant (4 nat. size) show- ils the highest development attained {— U. californica Herre). Specimen collected

by M. A. Howe, April 5, 1893, Coast iets Marin Co., Cal. Vo. 7763, author’s Sevan kindly given by Dr, L. W. Riddle.

PLATE 4 1. Usnea plicata barbata (L.) R. H. paeea mos barbata]. Dillenius’ aie Hist. Muse. p/. r2. f. 6. 1741. Reduced to abou Usnea trichodea Ach. Specimen vo. i author’s co collected Jan. 7, on Fitzwilliam, N. H., reduced to 3 nat. siz R.

snea plicata barbata (L.) H. Howe Typical specimen representing normal development in or jaarrines North America (,%; nat. size). Specimen from Westbrook, Me., collected Aug 1908, In the herbarium of the Portland Society

of Natural History, kindly Sheiats a Mr. A. H. Norton. 4. Usnea trichodea Ach. Acharius’ original figure, Meth. Lich. 1803. Reduced nearly one ha PLATE 5 1. Usnea articulata (L.) Hoffm. =[Usnea capillacea & nodosa]. Dillenius’ cot Hist. Muse. p/. zz. fi g. 1741. Usnea articulata (L.) Hofim. Specimen in the U. S. National a ilies from the British Isles. Kindly loaned by Assoc. Curator J. N. Rose. 3. Usnea cavernosa Tuck, Specimen mo. +7g8, author’s herbarium, erat Bruns- wick, Me., Jan., 1909. Kindly sent by Dr. Manton Copelan 4. Microscopic photograph of cross-section of thallus of vee cavernosa, showing axis oe medulla, algal cells, and foveola.

PLATE 6 Usnea longissima Ach. Acharius’ figure, Nova Act. Soc. Sci. Upsal. 7: f/. 7- jf. 5. 1815. Reduced. PLATE 7 1. Usnea angulata Ach., representing the highest development. Specimen from eastern Bolivia, Apolo, collected July 18, 1902, above a Mr. R. S, Williams, New York Botanical Garden, and kindly loaned for reprod 2. Specimen of Usnea angulata from Granville, Nae porcine by Miss Mary

18 R. H. Howe: MAnual oF THE GENUS USNEA os Psy 1895, showing reduced state in which it is found throughout the United

ee Usnea longissima Ach. Re senen the highest development. qaoerae pe

Enterrottach und Vallepp bei Tegernsee, Germany, collected Sept. 3, 1898, Arnold, and kindly loaned for repo from the private herbarium of ieee

Bruce Fink, Miami University, O , Ohi

4. Specimen of Usnea et fai Five Islands, Sagadahoc Co,, Me., collected December 5, 1908, by Benjamin Rowe, showing reduced state in which it is found in the southeastern limits of its range.

All figures are ? the natural size.

oS eae See Oe

Contributions to the Mesozoic flora of the Atlantic coastal plain—IV. Maryland *



The present contribution is devoted to a brief description of some recent additions to the flora of the Magothy formation in the state of Maryland. The Magothy formation, arenaceous in this region and more or less argillaceous to the northeastward, has been found to contain an abundant flora. From beds of this age in New Jersey the writer has recorded 114 different species of fossil plants. In 1906 a brief contribution made known 41 species of fossil plants from beds of this age in Delaware and Maryland. The exact localities were Deep Cut