“FLORA CAPENSIS.

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rie VOLUME,

ae FLORA CAPENSIS: 23°

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BEING A

Sustematic Description of the Plants

CAPE COLONY, CAFFRARIA, & PORT

T NATAL (AND NEIGHBOURING TERRITORIES)

BY VARIOUS BOTANISTS.

EDITED BY SIR WILLIAM T. THISELTON-DYER, K.C.M.G Cre YiD 0S. #

HONORARY STUDENT OF CHRIST CHURCH, OXFORD

» OF LATE DIRECTOR, ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW

rene under the authority of the Governments of the e of Good Hope, Natal and the Transvaal.

VOLUME V. Secrion 3. HYDROCHARIDE

TO SCITAMINE#

LONDON: . REEVE & CO 6, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN. publishers to the Home, Colonial and Indian Gobernments 19

3,

Ma. Bot. Pare~

1913

in sella

PREFACKH,

THE present section of Volume V. completes the description of the MonocotyLepons of South Africa to which Volumes VI. and VII. are devoted. Its preparation has been long postponed in the hope that the Orchidew might be undertaken by Dr. Botus who had made a continuous study of the South African species from 1882 to the close of his life thirty years later. No botanist has ever succeeded in examining or in illustrating with his own hand so many of them in a living state. The “Icones Orchidearum Austro-Africanarum Extratropi- carum” in two volumes, commenced in 1892, and the revision of the last proof-sheets of which occupied him “on the very eve of his death” on May 25th, 1911, are a worthy and permanent monument of his labours. Failing health had compelled him to abandon the elaboration of the Ericacew beyond the vast genus Erica, in which the late Professor GuTHRIE had collaborated with him, and it equally deterred him from attempting the study of the intricate problems which are involved in the synonymy of so many of the imperfectly described species of South African Orchideer.

In the event I was reluctantly compelled to acquiesce, and I entrusted their elaboration to Mr. R. A. Rotre, A.L.S., Assistant in the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, who has long made the order his special study, and had previously contributed the Orchidew to the seventh volume of the Flora of _ Tropical Africa.”

I am indebted for much friendly aid to Lieut.-Colonel-Sir Davw Prat, C.M.G., C.LE., F.R.S., Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, and my acknowledgments are also due to Mr. C. H. Waricut, A.LS., and to Mr. N. E. Browy, A.LS.,

A

vi PREFACE.

Assistant Keepers of the Herbarium, the former for reading the proofs and the latter for working out the localities and geographical distribution.

For the limits of the regions under which the localities are cited in which the species have been found to occur, reference may be made to the Preface to Volume VI.

Besides the maps already cited in the Preface to Volumes VI. and VIL, the following have also been used :—Map of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope and neighbouring territories. Compiled from the best available information. By Joun TEMPLER Hornek, Surveyor-General, 1895. Stanford’s map of the Orange Free State and the Southern parts of the South African Republic, etc., 1899. Carte du Théatre de la Guerre Sud-Africaine. Par le Comte CAMILLE Favre, 1902.

A correct determination of the species represented by the names and descriptions of earlier writers is a necessary basis for an accurate nomenclature. With this object, in order to assist Dr. Bo.us and to the ultimate advantage of the Flora, the types of South African Orchids described by THUNBERG were generously entrusted to Kew in 1883 by Dr. Tu. M. Frtss, the Director at the time of the Botanic Garden at Upsala, and in the following year the same kind service was rendered for those of Swartz by Dr. V. B. Wirrrock, Director of the Museum of Natural History at Stoekholm. They were critically examined by Mr. N. E. Brown and compared with the specimens of LINDLEY preserved at Kew. Errors in the correlation of the names of the earlier with those of later botanists were detected by him and communicated to Dr. Borus as well as to Mr. Rorr.

Further acknowledgments for the loan of types are due to :—

Dr. J. 1. Briguet, Director of the Botanic Gardens, Geneva ;

Geheimrath Dr. A. ENGLER, Director of the Botanic Garden,

Dahlem ; Professor C. A. M. LinpMAN, Curator of the Botanical Department of the Museum of Natural History, Stockholm; and for the same service, as well as for the gift of specimens,

Dr. RuDOLPH ScHLECHTER, Berlin. The general material worked out is due toa long series of

PREFACE. Vii

contributors of specimens of South African plants whose names are recorded in the previously published volumes.

The expenses of preparation and publication of the present section have been aided by a grant from the Government of the Transvaal. W. TT. ToD: Witcompr, 20th February, 1913.

‘Vol. V.—Sect. I1I.—Part I.!” Price 8s.

TILLORA CAPHNSES: SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANTS © ip CAPE COLONY, CAFFRARIA, AND PORT NATAL {AND NEIGHBOURING TERRITORIES) : By VARIOUS BOTANISTS.

i

EDITED BY Sir WILLIAM T. THISELTON-DYER, K. C. MG. C.LE., LL.D., D.S¢., F.B.S.

HONORARY STUDENT OF CHRIST CHURCH, OXFORD,

| LATE DIRECTOR, ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW.

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY oF THE | GOVERNMENTS OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, NATAL, AND THE TRANSVAAL.

Vol. V.—Sect. II.—Part It” Price 7s.

FLORA CAPENSIS: |

SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANTS

OF THE

CAPE COLONY, CAFFRARIA, AND PORT NATAL | 5 (AND NEIGHBOURING TERRITORIES) By VARIOUS BOTANISTS. Sik WILLIAM T. THISELTON-DYER, K.C.M.G. C.LE., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. HONORARY STUDENT OF CHRIST CHURCH, OXFORD,

LATE DIRECTOR, ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW.

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, NATAL, AND THE TRANSVAAL.

TABLE OF THE SERIES AND ORDERS.

Crass IT. MONOCOTYLEDONES (Vol. I., page xxxiii.).

Series 1. MicrospermMEm.—Perianth (at least the inner) petaloid. Ovary inferior, |-celled, with 3 parietal placentas. Seeds small exalbuminous.

CXXIX. HyprocHarIDEs (page 1). CXXX. BURMANNIACE (page 2) CXXXI. OrcHipe® (page 3). Series 2. Kpiagyna.—Perianth (at least the inner) petaloid. be inferior ee superior in Heemodoraceew). Albumen copious CXXXII. Scrraminr™ (page 313). CXXXIII. Hamopora “Shee VL., page 1). e 7). CXXXV. AMARYLLID pa Cia VL, page 171). CXXXVI. DroscorEackm (Vol. VL, page 246). Series 3. Coronarie®.—Perianth Lg least the inner) petaloid. vary superior. Albwmen copio CXXXVII. Lice (Vol. VI, aor 25 . CXXXVIII. PoONTEDERIACE# : (Vol. Vik; page Ly: CXXXIX. Xyrmex (Vol. VIL., page 2 CXL. ComMmEninacez (Vo ol. VII. ; page cae Series 4. Catyorne.——Perianth scarious or herbaceous. Ovary superior. Albumen copious. CXLI. AGELLARIE® (Vol. VIL, page 15). CXLH. ope m (Vol VIL. , page 16). CXLIV. Patma (Vol. VII., page 28). Series 5. Nupiriorm.—-Perianth none, or reduced to scales or hairs, Ovary superior, 1- or more-celled. Seeds albuminous. COXLIV, Typaacem (Vol. VII., page 30). CXLV. ARorpEm (Vol. VIL., page 32). CXLVI. Lemyacrem (Vol. VIL. page 39).

Series 6. APOCARP. pecan none or 1—2-seriate. Ovar superior, with 1 or more free ssieelk Seeds exalbuminous. CXLVIT. Narapaceam (Vol, VIL, page 41),

x SERIES AND ORDERS.

Series 7. Giumacem.—Flowers in the axils of scales (glumes) in spikelets, Peri/anth none, glumaceous or setose. Ovar ry 1-ovuled or divided into l-ovuled cells. Seeds albuminous.

CXLVIII. Ertocav.ex (Vol. VII. , page 51). 'XLIX. Restiacea (Vol. VIL, page 59).

CL. CyPeraces (Vol. VIL. » page 149).

CLI. Gramine# (Vol. VIL, ‘page 310).

SEQUENCE OF ORDERS CONTAINED IN VOL. V. SECT. 3, WITH BRIEF CHARACTERS.

Series I. Microsperm™. Ord. CXXIX.-CXXXI,

CXXIX. Hyprocuarmex (page 1). Flowers regular, small, unisexual. Outer perianth usually calycine, inner petaloid. Stamens 3-12 (Aquatic herbs).

CXXX. BurManniacex% (page 2). Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Perianth petaloid. Stamens 3 or 6 (Small terrestrial sometimes leafless herbs).

CXXXI. Oxcuipex (page 3). Flowers usually very irregular. Perianth petaloid. Stamen 1 (Terrestrial or epiphytic herbs).

Series II. Epigynz. Ord. CX XXII.

CXXXIT. Scrramines (page 313). Flowers irregular. Outer perianth usually calycine, inner petaloid. Stamens 1 or 5. Ovary inferior, 3-celled. Seeds with embryo in a central canal of the albumen (Herbs usually perennial, rarely shrubs).

OrpER CXXIX. HYDROCHARIDES. (By C. H. Wriaur.)

Flowers usually unisexual. Perianth regular, 2 rarely) 1-seriate, 3-merous, the inner whorl petaloid, white or yellow. Stamens 3-12 inserted on the base of the perianth, free or slightly united at the and ; anthers 2-celled, usually introrse; staminodes sometimes present. Ovary inferior, 1-celled with 3- 6 parietal placentas, or 6- d-celle d ; style short or very long ; stigmas 3 on the 1-celled or 6' on the several-celled ovaries, usually bifid ; ovules many or few orthotropous or anatropous. Fruit various, * often fleshy and inde- hiscent. Seeds aeisiictie embryo straig

Floating or submerged, os perennial, herbs ; es either all radical, or gad ave weet ie osite or whorled, narrow in the South African genus ;

ers W bud enclosed eed a membranous or - rbaceous sessile or stalked sath the ethers ual numerous, the female solitary

Dist Gen only 1 in South Africa; species about 50, extending nde ‘the thocical col temper, Re regions of both hemispheres.

I. LAGAROSIPHON, Harv.

Flowers paste Male : spathes ovate, bifid at the apex, many- flowered ; periant a 3 lobes slightly larger than the inner; stamens ; minodes 2-3. Female: s thes ovate or oblong, 1-flowered ; oon nth-tube long, very slender; limb of 6 lobes, the 3 outer slightly sae style as long as the perianth-tube ; stigmas 3, short, sometimes forked : ovules few or many, ortho- tropous.

Aquatic herbs with long more or less branched stems, leafy throughout ; leav alternate, subopposite or whorled, linear or linear- lanceolate ; spathes ccmasys

soli =.

Species about 12, chiefly in Tropical Africa, 1 in the Mascarene Inlands ai 1 in India.

Lb. museoides spon in Hook. Journ. Bot. iv. 1842, 230, t. 2 ft.

very minutely serrulate, glabrous, l-nerved, about 9 lin. long, 4 es wide; spathe compressed, 2-lobed, serrulate all round the margin ; male flower : perianth-lobes obovate, the outer slightly larger i the inner; filaments subulate; anthers dorsifixed, sagit te, mucronate ; staminodes 3, filiform, scabrous, twice as long as the stamens ; female flower : periant th-tube very slender, 1} in. long ; limb 1} lin. in diam. ; ; lobes obovate, the outer the larger ; meendee VOL. V.—SECT. III,

2 HYDROCHARIDE& (Wright). [Lagarosiphon.

6, short, inserted in the throat of the perianth-tube ; style shortly exser rted ; stigmas 3, short, forke ; pericarp membranous. idl. in Journ. Lin n, Soc, xxii, 233 : Wright i in Dyer, Fl. Trop. Afr. vii. 3. Hydrilla drasdalad Presi, Bot. ‘Bemerk. 112. H. muscoides, Planch. in

nn. Sci. Nat. 3™ sér. xi. 79. nes be Drege, Zwei Pfl. Docu- ers 130. Fluvialea, Drége, lc. 136, 140.

. B, major (Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc 233) ; 2 Tne h more robust pa ‘hen the type, much resembling Hydrilla “verticillata, } Royle ; leaves thick, e, da green, 9 lin. long, 1-2 lin. wide, with short obtuse teeth on the pale Ti cure,

Coast Recion: Uitenhage Div.; swamp near the mouth of the septa ae River, Drége, 2276c! Bontjes River, Zuurberg srticed 2000 ft., Drége, 2276b! ipladorb; Beyer, 1732! Bathurst Div. ; in a valley between Devonshire Farm and Glenfilling , under 1000 ft. , Drége, 227 6a! Var. 8: Victoria East Div

i 00} er, 17!

LAHARI REGION: Orange ee Colony ; Laai “gl Burke! and canny

ge mae is “Floone svaal ; Zwart Rive New Scotland, Nels a ransvaal ; go nkers rspruit, _ Reimann, 6559 ! Trigards Ponbeta: Pirvbah e678 1 ‘Sfanderton, Schlechter, 3464 Eastern ReGion : Var . B: Natal; near Greytown, Wilms, 2374!

Also in Tropical Africa.

OrpER CXXX. BURMANNIACEA, (By C. H. Wriceur.)

owers hermaphrodite. Perianth superior, petaloid; tube cylindrical ‘or gibbous, sometimes winged ; limb of 6 lobes in two

series, the outer the larger, or 3 in one whorl tamens 3 or 6, inserted on the perianth ; anthers with 2 widely separated cells ; connective dilated. vary inferior, l-celled with 3 parietal

placentas or 3-celled with 3 axile placentas ; style simple ; stigmas 3, often 2-3-fid ; ovules numerous. Capsule crowned by the marcescent

longitudinal slits or a lid. Seeds numerous, small; testa lax ; a minute, undivided.

Sm: rrestrial ae ir green paper or slender leafi ites ; ins doce bractea re rarely flowers solita Wu eee

Distrrs, ——- 9, species about 50, isetaia Chidiyti the tropics of both hemispheres.

I. BURMANNIA, Linn.

Perianth superior ; tube pie cine 3-angled or 3-winged ; lobes 6, 3 inner smaller than the outer or absent. Anthers $. subsessile in the perianth-tube ; cells globose or clavate, dehiscing transversely ; ; connective produced at the apex into an entire or “2-par tite crest,

Burmannia. | BURMANNIACE& (Wright). 3

Ovary 3-celled ; style shortly 3-lobed; ovules numerous. Capsule b er

usually adpressed, rarely lax and produced beyond the nucleus. Erect a ones: sometimes very slender, coloured and with minute leaves or scales, sometimes stronger with larger basal leaves ; flowers blue or white, rarely yellow, ‘aaliontty and terminal or many and cymose. Distris. Species about 20, in the tropics of both hemispheres,

1. B. capensis (Mart. Nov. Gen. et Sp. i. 12); stem filiform, 4—5 in. long, naked or bearing 1 or 2 very minute leaves; flowers 3, terminal; calyx with 3 membranous egy ome or thin semic ir reular wings. Harv. Gen. . Afr. Pl. ed. 2, 370; pec in Fedde, Repert. July, 1912. B. sp., Lam. Bacyel i. 52

Souts AFRICA: pimen locality, Herb. Jussieu.

There is doubt as to this plant being South African. Through the of Prof. H. Lec Seria a photograph of this plant from the Paris Herbariu

been presented to Kew. It shows two very slender stems, espertivety 24 and 34 in. high, broken off above their bases and each bearing 3 flowers at the apex ; the whole bears a striking faa 7 fe ce to B. oy var. africana, Rid]. (Journ. Bot. 1887, 85), and B. madagascariensis, Baker (Journ. Linn. Soc. xx. 68). The is labelled rb. D

2 specime ‘* He r. Braguieres” and ‘‘M. Dupetit Thouars dit que celle-ci est son ogee a genus now united to Burmannia and which Mr, Baker believes to be the s as his B. madagascariensis.

Orper CXXXI. ORCHIDEZ. (By R. A. Rourr.)

Perianth Pin Seige irregular, of six free or variously combined ements. pals equal, or the dorsal one (ventral if the flower is not rever: fee aikseek lateral ones sometimes united with each other or with the foot of the column, forming a sac- or spur-shaped ‘ass (mentum). Petals usually free, lateral ones more or less different from the sepals, ventral one, or dorsal if the flower is not LP), different, variously lobed or entire, the so-called dise or central part usually bearing crests or appendages, and the e peter extended into a spur or Stamens and style united into a central column, which faces the lip. Anther (in the African freon? solitary, on the top or back of the column, and te 4

P. age, and are sometimes attached to a distinct stipes and gland, Ovary inferior, 1-celled, with parietal a usually undeveloped at flowering ean Stigma either consisting of a viscid ree near B

+ ORCHIDE& (Rolfe).

the top of the concave side of the column or two-lobed and lateral ; in the former case it faces the lip, and is usually separated from the anther, below which it lies, by an appendage (rostellum). Seeds very numerous, pac fusiform ; testa loose, reticulated, enclosing a homogeneous embryo.

Herbs of various habit, or carat pried ; in many cases terrestrial, with tuberous roots or perennial pin, itary spicate ™m:

te, simple, entire, coriaceous or rano' orescence pints basal o ie spicate, racemose or cantelaees sometimes 1-flowered. The largest Order among monocotyledons, the species now known ie pati ated at over 5000, distributed into between 300 and 4 400 g gene hae) are tron agri = sg e, eX Sane in the highest latitudes and atid the mi ands, be re, however, sakes 3

very ra in : The setoheguie: chong are ae the beat part confined —_ the intertropical zone, within which they are most numerous in the mountai

dalina, Reichb, f., and G. faleigera, eae f. in Flora, 1 541, are doubtfully included by Bolus (Journ. ne + Boe. 2ey; Pind pte ity S.E. Africa, but they were described in a paper on Orchids, and must be excluded. The genus is oy Mascarene. Tribe ps Bogner —Anther 2-celled. Pollinia 2-8, waxy, united by a aEaRetn’ free from the rostellum

Sub-tribe 1. Mar —Column not pivdiibed into a foot the base. Po nia 4, ‘sometimes cohering in pairs. ip continuous with the base colum Flowers with spreading perianth-segments. : che eo herbs. Leaves membranous.

small, greenish.

se Comoro Island

Flowers in spikes,

Sub-tribe 2, DenpRoBIEe,—Column agg ose into a foo the io a sometin mes cohering in pairs. _ artouated to the foot of Flowers with erect or subconni Mogctinn, —Epiphytic herbs, ee $ ovoid. bn res cori-

Pseu ak ous. Flowers Bye ton age arranged on either side of a dilated aan often flattened rhach

oe 3. BLETIF sph prorat footless. Pollinia 8. 7 inserted at the base the column, and e 1 it e or less adnate to it ; its base produce ‘nbo-s a apt che spur.

Hit. pare wo hu adnate to the column, its limb flat or reflexed and

Tribe If. VANDEAL,—Anther-cells usually confluent. Pollinia 2 or 4,

hed singly or in pairs to a ci. pe and gland ~ process of the soutien 4 with with which ber are carried away upon removal

Sub-tribe - abibae Usually ee ger herbs. Leaves plicate and acut Lip usually spurred or saccate at t . Column with a distinet foot. IV. aa

tals het to the sepals in colou ¥. ieee ses. ria a ewes ergo Sac ore or less mem- t persiste' epals and petals equal or subequal, sicomnvent or the aa is bears petals usually very similar to the sepals in colour or paler.

Leave and _per- sistent. epals and F's ay ‘ual or pol ascery diebawioae: pe or paler.

ORCHIDE& (Rolfe). 5

VI. Lissochilus.—/nflorescence lateral. Leaves membranous and not sense ent, Sepals generally strongly reflexed. Petals much larger, erect or suberect, usually differently coloured from the sepals.

Sub-tribe 2. Cymprmiem.—Epiphytic herbs. eaves plicate and acute. Lip not spurred or saccate. Column without a foot. VII. Ansellia.—Sepals and petals spreading, subequal. Lip inferior. VIII. wigs ner —Sepals and petals subconnivent, unequal. Lip

Sub-tribe 3. SancaANTHEM.—Epiphytic herbs. eaves distichous, coriaceous vig Mg tence bilobed, conduplicate at the base. Jip spurred or saccate bas

IX. Angrecum,—Pollinia with a single stipes and gland. X. Listrostachys.—Pollinia with two distinct stipes attached to a single gland.

XI. Mystacidium.—Pollinia with two distinct stipes attached to two separate glands.

Tribe III], NEOTTIE 4.—Pollinia granular or powdery, free or with apical caudicle and gland. Anther-case operculate or erect and persistent. Sub-tribe 1. CorymB1ea.—Stems tall and more or less woody. Leaves plicate or strongly ribbed. Inflorescence paniculate. Floral-segments and column nies sickened: Anther and oateltain much as in the next sub-tribe. XII. Corymbis.—Sepals and petals apne connivent and narrow below somewhat spreading and = tidy ve. Lip erect, acing dilated into a short recurved limb al Sub-tribe 2. SprranrHEa.— Stems pi herbaceous. Leaves membranous, not plicately ribbed. Floral-se ents and column usually short. we we Pollin

monte with a linear caudicle a land XIII. parc lobe of the lip dilated and attached to the sac by a XIV. Platylepis.—Front ni a “a lip sessile on the sac, thet dilated in front into a distin

Sub-tribe 3. ARETHUSE®.—Stems from an underground tuber. Leaves radical, membranous, plicate. Flowers on leafless scapes, often borne before the ‘eae ss Column clavate. Pollinia granular or powdery, without stipes or glan RY: ate: Sepals rc Sosee free, more or less spreading. Lip witteotit: spur or 8

Tribe sles Siiow grooms —FPollinia granular or sectile, with a distinct caudicle gland, sometimes with two distinct caudicles and glan Anther-cells wrk to the column and persistent, often continuous with the rostellum.

Sub-tribe 1. GymnapENtE®.—Anther erect. Glands of the not enclosed within a pouch. ostellam diverging side lobes. Stigma simple, iiiuebed on the front of pote XVI. Brachycorythis.—. . as long as the sepals, not broadly dilated at the oc Lip not saceate or spurred at the . XVII. Platanthera,— Petals about as long as the tent not broadly d at the apex, forming with the dorsal se 2. abot rte po ach Yip simple or 3-lobed, saccate or we oP

ORCHIDEZ (Rolfe).

XVIII. Schizochilus.—Peta gant small and membranous, not forming with the Geceal sepal a hood over the column. Jip 3-lobed, ——- or rarely Saccirely saccate at the base. XIX. Bartholina.—Petals about as long as the sepals, not broadly dilated * the apex. Lip Srcndle flabellate ne multipartite, spurred at he base.

XX, @ uae —FPetals a than the sepals, narrow, sometimes fimbriate at the apex. ip spurred at the base.

XXI. Huttonea,— Petals broadly neg concave and fimbriate. ip broad, with fimbriate margin, not spurred at the base.

Sub-tribe 2, Hasenartem,—Anther erect. Glands of the pollinia not enclosed within a pouch. ostellum 3-lobed, wi ith diverging, often much i side lobes. Stigmas 2, often segues clavate, zn more or less la

XXII. sheer neon Sige entire or 3-lobed, with short basal triangular, minute, eitiantes ica. “ads hes Noun processes es ais XXIII. sae. darnige —lip 3-5-lobed, without basal spur. Rostellum tri- gular, small, without diverging side lobes. Stir ymatic processes prone Be elongated. XXIV. Habenaria,—Lip poe ono or A gyleras with an elongated or rarely a short or saccate Petals pac 0 or te sine Rostellum with small t eothlke fr ont lobe an pire side lobes, which carry anther Sanaiae " ighnedie proc sa lanes: often seth elongated,

XXY. pene as 3-partite, with an “clongitt basal spur. tals 2- PP coc yo foie lobes cohering + the with the lip, ie) pals “te stigmatic eSSes, "Rostell um cgay secre front lobe und eth side ‘ben: which the anther-channels.

Stig thee processes clavate and much apne d. XXVL. Cynorchis.—Lip 3-lobed - ‘ria! bog. short or elongated 2 ge Rostellum r, with oeallst front lobe, and

r less elongat ts ss. as bes, which carry the anthen phenom. Stigmatic processes oblong, short

Sub-tribe 3. Dise.a.—Anther usually reclinate or more or less reflexed behind the column, Glands of the pollinia not enclosed within a pouch. Rostellum with more or less developed side lobes. tt og simple or somewhat bed, concave or convex, often ieee, sometimes basal and somewhat what to the e lip. Jip usually free from the column. XXVIII. pee gar —Lip superior, shortly 2-spurred at the base. Sepals nd petals free. Glands of sgn united.

2-10

XXVUL has —Lip ae Paap r 2-saccate at the base. Sepals and ie free. Glan ay. palin separate. XXIX. Aviceps,— superior, os the Se, La = petals united ried an oblong limb. ‘lana : lini sepa: XXX. Pachites.—ip s uperior, not spurr eBid ns kis and spreading or suberect. Glands of vain ser XXXI. Orthopenthea.— Zi 'p superior, not sp sepal anticous, concave or rarely subgaleate or x ny 8 Bone! near the base. Petals ‘sae and spreading. Glands of plex opaiak XXXII. Monadenia.—Odd sepal = galeate, spurred behind. Petals free. Lip narrow and entire. Glands of pollinia united.

XXXIII. Amphigena.—0Od. d sepal su galeate, ascen Petals erect, Pace Zip small and st entire, eaone unappendaged. lands of pollinia united.

ORCHIDEZ: (Rolfe). 7

XXXIV. yore ogy age Png superior, aap shortly cme behind ee. broad, concave and more or less fringed or somtimes Soon Ato ulate. Rostell m 8-toothed at the apex. paris generally united. XXXV. Pen Ge dd sepal superior, po concave or not spurr rred, Petals - ee OP spreading. Glands of pollinia separate. Lip narrowly near,

XXXVI. Disa.—Odd sepal superior, galeate, with a short or sometimes much elongated “sod behind. Petals free. Lip flat, entire, usually

narrow. Glands of pollinia separate XXXVII. Schizodium.—Odd sepal mg alate, with an oblong or narrow spur behind. Petals free broad « or concave base and

XXXVIII. Brownleea.—Odd sepal superior, galeate, with an oblong or narrow behind. Petals

ae much elongated spur d. re or less adnate to if Ls nm dorsal sepal and sid of. the column. Jip pee a d, more =i less clasping ‘the base of the column.

Glands e vvollinia separate

Sub-tribe 4. Corycre®.—Anther parma! reclinate or more or less reflexed behind the column, a gy n Ommatodium. Glands of pollinia not nana within a pouc Rastolluen with more . less eT side

. Lip adnate to = column throughout its | ength, produced beyond the seg amngn te anther-cells into a vario asl air need pi oko Stigma more or less 2-lobed.

*Lateral sepals neither saccate nor spurred.

XXXIX. Ceratandra.— superior, lun ith a rather small rigs G8 hian ee Petals ree ea EN with the dorsal sepal into a e limb. Lateral sepals free. Arms of rostellum narrow

ve raliciomnry XL. Ceratandropsis.—Odd sepa/ superior, Mier with the petals into a concave limb. Lateral sepals free. Lip co ea tg without appendage. Arms of rostellum elongated and ascending. XLI. Evota.—Odd sepal superior, cohering with the ample petals into a spreading limb. Lateral sepals free. Zip lunate or hastate, with

a large ris ag or bipartite appendage. Arms of the rostellum laterally dilated XLII. Ommatodium.-- ou Preise —— moras with the into a

hood-shaped, what conea Lateral sepals free Anther rete, ‘with the via rok de collate danse Sih

XLII. Pterygodium. sepal oe be Speer with the = into a broad concave or spreadin 2 free. Anther inverted, with the | of an ie uppermos

XLIV. Anochilus.—Zip superior, with a large deflexed sks is tage Odd sepal cohering with the into a wigaibes e limb, sometimes pascal sepals fre

XLV. Corycium.— Odd sepal superior, “sining with ai saccate or very concave saul into a concave or much contracted limb. Lateral

sepals united into a concave bint , or sometimes free. Lip with ndage.

** Lateral sepals spurred or prominently saccate behind, XLVI. Disperis.—Odd sepal superior, galeate or spurred, cohering with the into a galeate limb. Lateral sepals free. Lip produced into a senso erect appendage, sometimes ta the reflexed lim

8 ORCHIDE (Rolfe). | Liparis. I. LIPARIS, L. C. Rich.

Sepals spreading, free, or the lateral more or less connate, often faleate and broader than the dorsal. Petals usually very narrow.

recurved above the erect base, entire, often bituberculate at the base. Column usually long and slender, incurved, usually margined or winged at the tee anther terminal ; pollinia 4, free or cohering by a viscid appen Tecreetie or seabed cipiti, rales with or without pseudobulbs ; leaves one r more, membran contin with the sheath, or somewhat coriaceous and anad on the po or cancisbulls flowers ins or medium-sized, in lax o ense racemes ; bracts small or narrow ; flower ers small

DISTRIB. as about mt found throu uae the warm and temperate regions of the globe, but mo merous in Tropical Asia. All the South African species ine to the pare ‘Molli folie.

Raceme dense we eae sey ss a ... (1) capensis.

Raceme lax:

Leavis ovate to elliptic ... os eee ee -+- (2) Bowkeri. Leaves lanceolate ... ne ec “ei ies (3) Gerrardi.

1. L. capensis (Lindl. in Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. i. ii. 314); pseudo- bulbs ovoid, #-1 in. long, usually 2 leaved ; leaves spreading, ovate, subacute, rather thick and coriaceous, with de epressed veins, shining above, }-24 in. long, }—14 in. broad ; seapes 2-6 in. high ; raceme dense, many-flowered ; bra acts lanceolate, acuminate, }—} in. long beac slightly longer than the bracts ; dorsal sepal linear. oblong

tuse, 4—} in. long, with eerie margins ; lateral sepals ovate- ler subfaleate, subobt 1-1 jn. long ; petals linear, obtuse, about as long as the dorsal sepal, with revolute: margins ; lip Nedeehdna elliptic-oblong, truncate or obscurely bilobed at the apex, 1-1 in.

? 3 oe long ; 3 sides inflexed towards the apex ; column clavate, incurved, vont ng. idl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. xxii. 272; Bolus in

Linn. Soe. xxv. 180, and Ie. Orch. Austr.-Afr. i. t. 1; Engl. Hoch- gebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 187; Durand & Schinz, Conspect. Fl. Afr. v. 8; Rolfe Afr, vii. 22. L. Pappei, ee te Harv. Thes. Cap. ii. 7. Sturmia capensis, Sond. in Linnza, xix.

SourH Arrica: without reese Grey !

Coast Recion ; Cape Div. ; near Cape Town and ¢ on the Flats, below 100 ft.

s ~ = = 3 oe :

Swellendam Div woods and on rocks at ishimongas » Bowie! Komgha Div. 560 Also in poe Africa, if a fruiting specimen from the Cameroons is rightly referred here. Bowkeri Thes. Cap. ii. 6, t. 109); pseudobulbs ovoid

or oblong, 1-1} in. long, 3—4-1 leaved ; leaves elliptic-ob long or aba acute, loosely sheathing at the base, limb 1}~44 in, long, 3-2

Liparis.| ORCHIDE& (Rolfe). 9

broad, undulate, membranous, with 5 to 7 prominent nerves ; scapes

25-8 in. high ; racemes lax, about 4—1 haa ered ; bracts acuminate from a broad amplexicaul rat 1} in, lon ; pedicels i in. long ; dorsal sepal narrowly linear-oblong, oO use, | - in, ith rey 0- lute margins ; lateral sepals falcate-oblong, Sy ‘twisted, } in long ; petals linear, obtuse, }—} in. g, ‘with r argins ;

column east . in. Soa. Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. xxii. 270 Bolus in Journ. Linn. Soc. xxv. 181, and Ie. Orch. Austr.-Afr. i. t. shee é Faia Conspect. Fl. Afr. v. 8; Rolfe in Dyer, Fl. Ti ay

Sout ‘eek without Heep, gle Saunders Coast Region: Alb in intain woods, sir atl MacOwan, heck Yn se ! Moustains Gt Kaffraria, Mrs. Barber N ReGion: Transkei; in crevices of rocks, in shade at Fort Bowke er, Siete “hod | Kreilis sgh Ranber’ Natal, Wood, 5585! Zululand ; Ingoma, ecay trees, rene 1556 Also in Tropical Afric

L. Gerrardi (Reichb. f. in oa ime 118); cage Bit short, slightly swollen ; leaves radi cal, o 4, sheathin the base,

long ; pedicels 3-5 lin. long; dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, acute, A in. long ; lateral sepals obliquely oblanceolate-oblong, obtuse, } n. long ; petals linear, subobtuse, | in. long ; lip ovate-su uborbicular,

column stout, slightly curved, 4 in. long. Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. xxii. 275 ; Bolus in ia Linn. Soc. xxv. 181; Durand & Schinz, Conspect. Fl. Afr.

EASTERN REGION: te: stati !

Bolus (Journ. Linn. Soc, xxv. 181) includes Liparis gh diode Reichb. f. _ Flora, 1885, 543, as doubtfully South African, but i ost certainly occurs outside our limits. It was described in a paper on pate chids, and, although

mits. oro on no habi A i = Sta : oon y came from that region, for its affinity is with a

II. MEGACLINIUM, Lindl.

Dorsal sepal free, erect or spreading, longer than the bangyiar- xed

narr

at the base, recurved above, entire or denticulate at the base, rarely somewhat 3-lobed. Column short, broadly dilated and winged at both sides, terminating above in acute or rounded teeth; base pro-

10 ORCHIDE (Rolfe). | Megacliniwm.

duced into a short foot; anther terminal, operculate, incumbent 2- or rarely 1-celled ; pollinia normally 4, but usually con- nate in pairs, without a

Epiphytic herbs, with stout ng rhizomes ; pseudobulbs sessile in the axil of a shoatie: te ostly 3- ie ngled, 2- or 1-leaved ; scapes arising from the base of

he pseu site, sim apex ila a flattened, often ensiform and almost foliaceous rhachis sone either side of which the flowers a are distichously arrang bracts usually ovate or triangular, ultimately much deflexed ; flowers ma Viediballed. curved.

Dist pecies about 30, mostly bic. African, with 2 South African supieeaennives atid 1 rep orted from M adag

Pseudobulbs na owl —— Sree slightly Acangled

leaves tiashowky ong (1) Sandersoni. nigh that bony orateblong strongly tangle es elliptic-oblong .- (2) scaberulum.

1. M. Sandersoni (Oliv. in Bot. Mag. sub t. 59 936); rhizome creeping, moder: ately stout ; pseudobulbs narrowly ovoid-oblong, slightly ‘4. pragity 1-1} in. long, 2-leaved ; leaves narrowly oblong, obtuse, 2-21 long, }—} in. broad; scapes 34—4 in. long, with 3 or 4 oblong hte: sheaths below the inflorescence ; rhachis rather narrow, a ut 1- as in. ze 1 in. broad, dark purple ; bracts tri-

som concave, a ne Tong ae sepals obliquely pis with falcate

column short, with broad wings ; capsule oblong, e in. long. ulbo- phy ae Sanderson Reichb. f. in Flora, 1878, 78; Bolus in Journ. Lin and Ic. Orch. Austr. Afr, i. t. 3, oe | (excl. Send biel i plandy’ Vicnd & Schinz, Conspect. Fl. Afr. ¥

KALAHARI san lh Transvaal ; Rendall! on pe at Saddleback Kloof and Moodies, near Barberton, at 4100 ft., Culver, 6; Umzindine Creek, 4600 ft., ig 688.

ASTERN REGION : Natal ; Sanderson, 898! Mrs. K. Saunders!

Scaberulum (Rolfe in Gard. Chron. 1888, iv. 6); rhizome creeping, stout ; pseudobulbs ovoid, tetragonal, {-1} in. long, 2-leaved ; leaves ellipti ic-oblong, obtuse, coriaceous, 13-2 in. long, $—} in. broad ; scapes suberect, 4—6 in. long, with 3 or 4 oblong obtuse sheaths below the infloréseenen ; rhachis flattened, 2—4 in, lon ng, } in. broad, pale green, densely spotted and marbled with dusky-brown

rather numerous, dull purple, becoming green spotted with purple at the base of the sepals; sepals papillose, dorsal narrowly lan- ceolate-linear, acute, } in. long, lateral shorter, falcate, with broadly ovate base and oyahestnic acute apex ; petals falcate, reflexed, narrowly linear, acute, } in. long ; lip sharply reflexed, base broadly orbicular, then rapidly narro wed into a broadly linear obtuse apex, grooved on

the upper half, with two keels underneath ; column short, with

Megacliniwm.]| -— ORCHIDEA (Rolfe). Ss

broad wings, terminating upwards in a pair of short teeth. Durand & Schinz, ear 068 Fi. Afr, ¥. 16. Bulboph yllum scaberulum, Bolus in Journ. Linn. Soe. xxv. andersoni, Bolus, Ic. Orch. Austr.-Afr. i. t. 3, partly (broad- leaved plant onl Eastern ReGion: Pondoland ; Zillett! Zululand, Mrs. K. Saunders! united this with the preceding species, but the two are quite

Bolus has distinct i in numerous particulars III. CALANTHE, R. Br.

Sepals subequal, free, usually widely spreading. Petals like the sepals or narrower. Lip usually more or less adnate to the column ;

spur. Column short, without a foot ; wings usually united to the sides of the c Anther subterminal, o icone incumbent, 2-celled ; pollinia 8, oblong or obovate, somewhat compressed, the

caudicles often somewhat attenuate and united by a vinta appendage. Capsules elliptic-oblong.

ie aie oe with short leafy stems, sometimes thickened at the base; lea ral, petiolate; limb elliptic- to ee or seta igs iieha rnb erect from the rhizome, o tall, with a number of sheaths to e ; flowers in loose or tog pen cain. showy ; bracts lanceolate or i iataciaii eolate.

DIstTRis. poe —— 100, most numerous in Tropical Asia, extending to Japan and Australia d sparingly represented in Africa, the West Indies and Central America.

1. C. natalensis (Reichb. f. in Bonplandia, 1856, 322); rhizome stout ; leaves’ tufted, petiolate, “sai or elliptic-lanceolate, acu- tainate, plicate, 5—9-nerved, 8-15 in. long, 2}—4 in. broa ; petioles 2-5 in. long; scapes erect, 1-2 tt. gy racemes lax, up to 9 in. rai bracts linear- lanceolate, acute, $—} in. long ; pedicels 1-1}

n. long ; flowers lilac, with purple lip which bar ner changes to bs ; sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute or acum ates $ in. “Jong ; petals slightly shorter than the sepals; lip 3- iebed,4 } in. long; side lobes oblong, obtuse ; front lobe obcordately 2-lobed ; disc with 3 rows of wart-like crests; spur slender, curved, }-1 in. long; column short and very stout. - E. Br. in Gard. Chron. 1885,

Ie. Orch. yes ie ii. t. 7; Bot. Mag. t. 6844; Durand & Schinz, Conspect. Fl. Afr. v. 18. C. sylvatica, var. natalensis, Reichb. f. in ] ix. 374.

innzed, XIX.

iene Reaion : King Williamstown Div.; Perie Forest, near King Williams- wn, D’ Urban, 108! Bolus! Walsh i = eee Bolus, ie as ERN Recion: Natal; at The B ff, Sanderson, 003 ! Kirkman’s coe burg ct anand eet pera 2400 te Pace hanan! Zululand ; Entumeni, Wood, 3949 ! Ingoma, Gerrard, 1538 ! Thlivia, Gerrard, 2173!

12 ORCHIDE (Rolfe). | Acrolophia. IV. ACROLOPHIA, Ptitz.

Sepals subequal, free, subconnivent or spreading, the lateral not adnate to the foot of the colu umn. Petals like the sepals or a little

Terrestrial herbs ; stems leafy at the base, not thickened into rhizomes; roots thick and fleshy ; leaves in a more or less distichous basal tuft, narrow, coriaceous me :

n erect, usually loosely paniculate, racemose in A. ustulata; flowers sma’ medium-sized, usually lax ; bracts small or narrow.

RIB. Species 9, mostly limited to the south-west corner of the Cape a and oahu te ‘removed from the oe ett of the moist sea breezes.

rs from Lulophia in the terminal Sa leafy stems, which are not Faroe into tubers ; the very fleshy roots, and the coriaceous eer istent leaves. It includes Lulophia s section Desciscentes, Lindl. Gen, and Sp. Orch. 184, Lip spurred or saceate at the an horns : sito hi in. long ; front lobe

aor ample ae lobes... wes Je .-- (1) micrantha. Lip with obscure bg no side lol Lip with a Sbtatelstide beneath near the base. . (2) cochlearis. Lip spreading without a constriction beneath ... (3) Bolusii. Anther 2 sa ; sepals vai! ~2 in. long; front lobe of ef not cochleat ne a

ggrrntnicsiect h nerves of ‘ise with stout papille : (4) tristis. Capsule F satu nads nerves of dise with slender papill (5) spheerocarpa. Flowers cabmenbeanos nerves of ii hk barbate ee a sey oes -.. (6) lunata. Sepals é in. ie: Peta! se dise of Sch sey barbate ; coloured ' (7) lamellata. Petals acuminate ; dive of #5. slighty barat bracts coloured (8) comosa. Lip neither spurred nor saceate ... ae one »-- (9) ustulata.

Acrolophia. | ORCHIDE# (Rolfe). 13

. A. micrantha (Schlechter & Bolus in Journ. Bot. 1894, 332, oe ; rhizome stout; leaves tufted, 4—14, ensiform or linear, acute, slightly curved or sometimes spreadin , rigid, minutely serrulate, 4—6 in. long, 1 4—1 in. broad, dilated at the she athing base ;

lip; column stout, more than = as long as the segments; capsule elliptic-oblong, over } in. long. Bolus, Ic. Orch, Austr.-Afr. ii. t. A, fimbriata, Schlechter in Engl. Jahrb. xxvi. 340. Pion micrantha, Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. 184, and in tee Bot Mag. ii. 202 ; Drege, Zwei Pa. fale a 128, 130,

SoutH areca t without or nism sane type specimen) ! Coast ReGion Bredasdo ae fontein Poort, Schlecht ter —— nhag

?

merset Div, ; rat et East, ee See note under the following species.

2. A. cochlearis (Schlechter & Bolus in Journ. Bot. 1894, 332, partly); rhizome stout; leaves tufted, 4-12, ensiform or linear, acuminate or acute, slightly curved or ee stgerabin spreading, rigid, very minutely serrulate, 4—14 in. long, }—} in. broad, dilated at the sheathing base ; inflores cence terminal, paniculate, 1-2 ft. high, with numerous lanceolate sheaths below ; : iow aed 4-1 ft. long, lax. many-flowered ; bracts lanceolate, page ate, 11 in, long ; pedicels slender, 41—} in. long; flowers small, awny ‘2. n, with a pale yellow lip, and usually a deep red 3. lobed blotch. near the base; sepals and petals subconnivent, elliptic-oblong. , Subobtuse, nearly

in. long; lip cochleate, cuneate at the base, and with a sh Sanidtrietion underneath below the middle, entire or with only very minute side lobes, erect, irregularl crisped and erenulate at the

stout, nearly } as Jong as the segments ; capsule elliptic-oblong, ? in long. A. micrantha, Schlechter & Bolus in Journ. Bot. 1894, 332, partly. Eulophia cochlearis, Lindl. in Hook, Comp. Bot. sabe! ii, 202 nt of Bolus). E. micrantha, Drege, Zwei Pfl. Documente, 125, Linnea, xx. 217 ; Bolus in Journ. Linn. Soc. xxv. v. 183, and 3 yan

14 ORCHIDE (Rolfe). | Acrolophia.

Austr. “Afr. i. t. 4; Durand & Schinz, eg BIAS ¥:. 23; Krénal. in ihe: Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien, xx. 12

Sourn Arrica : without locality, Holland, 14! oast Rearon: Mossel Bay Diy.; Little Brak River, ene 6177! between Little Brak River ‘eit Hart enbosch, Burchell, 6201! G e Div. : near Silver River, Penther, 867. Kinyank Dive: Dowkamma, under 500 “ft, Drége. Uiten- hage Div. ; ! i i

as raham, lton! Mi near the coast, ate od King Bat ; Kowie sandhills, MacOwan, 395! King Williamstown Div., near Kin mstown, D U7 ban, 129! Komgha Div. ; near _ mouth of the Kei Rive ma hasan 10

ERN Recion: Transkei; Kreilis Country, Hobe 11!

This has been m aor confused with the preceding and following ge but a examination of the inal types enables the matter to be ae edup. The ike called Eulophia sD A by Bolus (Ie. Orch. Austr.-Afr. 4) is SE . cochlearis,

* is #. cochlearis (l.c. is a quite detiact specie The

diffe es between the two were clearly pointed out by Bolus, but some of a ecimens ci by ae oe t tter belong to the

E. eile Lindl., misunderstood by Bolus, and was wisely

described as Acro abe Fe beiepe Schlechter

3. A. Bolusii (Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 1911, 198); rhizome stout ; leaves pane: 4-12, ensiform or linear, neoantnate or acute, entire or very minutely serrulate, rigid, 4-14 in. long, 4-1 in. broa paras at "the sheathing base ; inflorescence terminal, paniculate, 2 ft. high, with numerous lanceolate sheaths below ; panicl

1 as long as the lip; aaa stout, with prominent Coals angles,

} as long as the sepals and petals. ‘A. cochlearis, Schlechter & Bolus

in Journ. Bot. 1894, 332, partly. Eulophia og gig Bolus in Journ.

Linn. Soe. xxv. 183, in Prane. S. Afr. ue Soe. v. 107, Orch. Cap.

Penins. i and Ic. Orch. Austr.-Afr. i. t. 5; hes nd a Schinz,

pon oat Fl. Afr. ys 20, not of Lindl. ; acrtinad in Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien, xx, 12.

Sov’ TH AFRICA: without locality, 1589! oun Reaion : Cape Div. ; Sandy downs east of